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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

0000155T74A 




fllass ~F I Z3 



Book , /S^T77 



RIX'S RIX'S RIX'S 

Original New York Store, 

460 BROADWAY, 

SARATOGA SPRINGS. 
THE MOST POPULAR STORE IN THE VILLAGE. 

20 PEE CEITO?. S-A-'VED. 

MILLINERY, HOSIEET, CORSETS, NOTIONS, LACES, 
RIBBONS, GENT'S FURNISHING. 

Portmonnaies, Fancy Soap, 3 cents a cake up; Trimmings, Sewing Silk, 

Worsteds, Combs, Buttons, Brushes, Cotton, 200 yds. 3 cts.; 

Pins 4cts., Coats', Brooks' and Clark's Cotton. 

FRINGES, LACES, WHALEBONE, TWIST, BRAIDS, UNDERWEAR, COLLARS, CUFFS, 
BOSOMS, GLOVES. 

Cotton Edging, Veils, Ladies' and Gents' Linen Handkerchiefs, Ladies' 
and Gents' Balbriggan Hose, Wash Blond, Footing, Dot Laces, &c, &c. 

Saratoga Book: Store. 

E. R. STEVENS, 

322 & 324 Broadway, SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y. 

(First door north of Congress Hah, and opposite the Grand Union Hotel.) 



Always in stock, the very Latest Publications in Current 
Literature, the latest and most popular Novels. 

NEW BOOKS RECEIVED EVERY DAY. 

A very large assortment of Stereoscopic Views of Saratoga, Lake 

An Jlegantvariety of FINE STATIONERY, including English and 
French Tinted Writing Papers, Fine Cutlery, Russia Leather Goods, 
Parlor and Out-door Games. 

A CIRCULATING LIBRARY, 

Comprising about 700 Volumes of the veiy best in Science, History, and Fiction. 
TERMS VEEY REAvSONAJBTjE. 



SARATOGA 

ILLUSTRATED : 

The Visitor's Guide 

TO 

SARATOGA SPRINGS. 



CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS OP THE 

ROUTES OP APPROACH, HOTELS, INSTITUTIONS AND BOARDS 

HOUSES, MINERAL SPRINGS, WALKS, DRIVES, AMUSEMENTS. 

RACES, REGATTAS, EXCURSIONS, COMMERCIAL 

INTERESTS, ETC., ETC. 

WITH A 

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPRINGS AND VILLAGE. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS. 



Ooptkioht, 1876. 



NEW YORK : 
" TAINTOR BROS., MERRILL & CO., PUBLISHERS, 

18 and 20 Astor Place. 
1884. 



n«3 

FOURTH SEASON. 

THE AMERICAN, 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 



FAKNHAM & BUSH, Prop's. 



The most centrally located Hotel in Saratoga, situated 
on Broadway, between the United States and Grand 
Union Hotels. 

Within two minutes walk of Congress Spring Park, the 
Hathorn, Congress, and other famous Springs. 

The Piazza occupies the most prominent place in 
Saratoga Springs. 

Enlarged, remodeled and greatly improved since last year. 

Steam Heat insures comfort in damp or chilly weather. 

Electric Bells in every room. 



Bath Rooms, New Furniture, all Moderi: 
Improvements, etc. 

Excellent Cuisine and Experienced Management. 

PEICES MODERATE. 



FARNHAM & BUSH, Proprietors. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

"A" Spring 64 

Adelphi Hotel 22 

Adirondack R. R 101 

American Hotel 22a 

Amusements 97 

Analyses of Saratoga Waters 41, 42 

Arlington Hotel 23 

Balston Spa 92 

Battle Ground 94 

Boarding Houses 26, 32 

Broadway Hall 28 

Champion Spouting Spring 71, 92 

Chapman's Hill 93 

Circular Railway 83 

Circular St. House 29 

Clarendon Hotel 21a 

Columbian Hotel 24 

Columbian Spring 47 

Commercial Interests 112 

Commercial Hotel 31 

Congress Hall 16 

Congress Park Place Hotel 30 

Congress Spring Park 81 

Congress Spring 45 

Continental Hotel 31 

Corinth 93 

Crystal Spring 69 

Diamond Spring 68 

Drives 87 

Elmwood Hall 29 

Empire Spring 48 

Entertaining Walks 79 

Eureka Spring 70 

Everett House 29 

Excelsior Park 84 

Excelsior Spring 49 

Excursions 101, 102 

Geyser Lake 90 

Geyser Park 56 

Geyser Spring 53, 91 

GlenMitchell 89 

Grand Union Hotel 20 

Gridley's Trout Ponds 8S 

Hamilton's Medical Institute 27a 

Hamilton Spring 57 

Hathorn Spring 57 

High Rock Spring 58 

History of Saratoga Springs 117 

Holden House 30 

HowlandHouse 28 



PAGE 

Hotels 15, 32 

Huestis House 25 

Indian Camp 83 

Institutions 26 

IrvingHotel 28 

Kensington Hotel 23a 

Kissingen Spring 69 

Lake Lonely 98 

Lin wood Hotel 30 

Location 5 

Luzerne 93 

Magnetic Spring 69 

Mansion House 31 

Medicinal Action of the Waters ... 42 

Moon's Lake House 87 

Mt. McGregor 108 

National Express Co 116 

Pavilion Spring 61 

Pitney House 30 

Properties of the Water 35 

Prospect Hills of Greenfield 93 

Putnam Spring 69 

Races 100 

Red Spring 61 

Saratoga Springs 5 

Saratoga Lake 87 

Saratoga Lake R. R 105 

Saratoga Sanitarium 28 

Saratoga Vichy Spring 66, 91 

Seltzer Spring 69 

Source of Springs 34 

Spouting Spring 89 

Springs 33, 85 

Star Spring 64 

Strong's Remedial Institute 26, 84 

Temperature of the Water 35 

Temple Grove Ladies' Sem 2S, 83 

Triton House 90 

Triton Spouting Spring 90 

Union Spring 52 

United States Hotel 18 

United States Spring 69 

Village 8 

Wagman's Hill 93 

Washington Spring 68 

Waverly Hotel 29 

Wearing Hill 93 

White Sulpher Spring 70 

Windsor Hotel 25 

Woodlawn Park , 86 




Scale 1250 ft tolxnch. 




Saeatoga Speikgs. 



CHAPTER I. 

LOCATION, AND HOW TO REACH IT. 

Nbak the eastern edge of the State of New York, U. S. A., 
and bordered by the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, lies the ancient 
county of Saratoga, famous in history and in medical science 
for its battle-fields and healing springs. The village of Sara- 
toga Springs, in the center of the county, and the largest village 
in it, is known round the globe. Tens of thousands of the fash 
ionahle world annually visit this celebrated resort, and the how 
to get there becomes a question of absorbing interest. In what 
direction does it lie? and what are the means of access! 
From New York it is north 182 miles; from Boston, west 
230 miles ; from Niagara, east 311 miles ; from Montreal, 
south 202 miles. These are its points of compass, and 
they readily show its position on the map. These distances are 
by rail and boat ; and, to aid the more distant tourist, it may be 
mentioned that Saratoga Springs is distant from Philadelphia 
274 miles ; Washington, 412 ; Chicago, 841 ; White Mountains, 
322 ; Albany, 38 ; Lake George, 35 ; Rutland, Vt., 62. The routes 
by boat or rail are numerous. 

Tourists from Europe usually choose New York as a starting 
place for the Springs, as the route includes the Hudson River 
and gives a choice of boat or rail. The water-route gives 144 

5 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

miles of steamboat voyaging, of entrancing beauty and grandeur, 
unsurpassed by any river soenery in the world. 

The Bay Liiu of Steamers, during the summer season, make 
the trip of the Hudson River from New York to Albany by day- 
light, when all the beauty of the river scenery may be enjoyed in 
very comfortable ease. They leave Pier 39, North River, at 8.3.1 
A.M., and West 22d St., 15 minutes later. 

The People's Evening Line of boats make the trip in the night, 
leaving New York, Pier 41, N. R. , at 6 P.M., and give a sail on the 
finest river boats afloat. Connection is made in the morning at 
Albany, with Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R.R., 38 m. to Saratoga. 

The Citizen's Line of Steamers leaves Pier 44, North River, 
foot of Christopher Street, at 6 p.m., arriving at Troy in the 
morning, connecting with the Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R. R., 
or Boston, Hoosac Tunnel & Western R. R. , to Saratoga. 

The Hudson River Railroad, following the eastbank of the 
Hudson, takes one from New York to Albany or Troy without 
change of cars, and, during July and August, drawing-room 
cars are run through to Saratoga Springs in five hours and a half. 
Tourists from Boston have a choice of two routes: 
1st. Via the Hoosac Tunnel Route, which is composed of .the 
Fitchburg, Troy and Greenfield R.R., the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel 
and Western R.R., to Mechanicsville, N. Y., thence to Saratoga. 
Distance, 223 miles. Passengers can, if they prefer, diverge at 
Fitchburg, Mass., via Cheshire R.R., to Bellow's Falls, Vt., Rut- 
land Division of Central Vermont R.R., to Rutland, Vt., and the 
Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R.R. to Saratoga. Distance, 230 miles. 

2d. Via Boston and Albany R.R. to Springfield, Mass., and Albany, i 
N. Y. , thence via Saratoga Division of the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Co.'s R.R. to Saratoga. Distance, 240 miles. Passengers 
by this route can, if they prefer, diverge at South Framingham, 
via Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg and New Bedford R.R., to Fitch- 
burg, Mass., thence by Route No. 1. Distance, via Hoosac Tun- 
nel route, 231 miles, via Cheshire R.R. , 238 miles. Palace cars are 
run from Boston to Saratoga without change via all these lines. 

Passengers from the West may take any route to Buffalo or Nia- 
gara Falls, thence by N. Y. C. R.R. to Schenectady and Saratoga. 

The Erie Railway at Bingbamton connects with the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Co.'s R.R. to Schenectady and Sarato&a. 

6 






SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

From Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, the quickest 
route is to New York, thence by Hudson River R.R., or Steamers. 

From Maine and the Maritime Provinces, rail or boat may b6 
taken to Boston, or to Portland. From Portland, the Boston and 
Maine Railroad connects with Manchester, N. H. , and then, via 
Concord and Northern Railroad to White River Junction, Vt., 
thence via Bellows Falls and Rutland, to Saratoga. Or from 
White River Junction take Cent. Vt. R.R. to Burlington, Vt., 
thence by steamer on Lake Champlain or Central Vermont R.R. 
to Ticonderoga, N. Y., thence by Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R.R. ta 
Saratoga ; or on from Burlington via Central Vt. to Rutland, thence 
Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R.R. to Saratoga. Or from Portland, 
Me., take Portland and Ogdensburg R.R. to White Mts. , St. Johns- 
bury, Vt., Cambridge, Burlington, thence rail or steamer as above. 

14 The completion of the Hoosac Tunnel opens another desirable 
route between Portland, Bangor and the East and Saratoga, viz. : 
via the Portland and Rochester R.R. , Portland to Rochester, and 
the Nashua and Rochester and Worcester and Nashua R.Rs. to 
Ayer Junction, Mass., thence by Route No. 1 from Boston." 

From the White Mountains a through palace car is run to Sara- 
toga in one day in summer via the Wells' River and Montpelier 
R.R., Cent. Vt. R.R., and Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R.R. via 
Wells' River, Montpelier, Burlington, Leicester Junction, Ticon- 
deroga, and Whitehall to Saratoga. 

Or by Portland and Ogdensburgh R.R. from White Mts. to 
Cambridge and Burlington, Vt. , thence by rail or steamer. 

From Montreal the most direct route is by the Del. and Hud 
Canal Co.'s Line, to Rouse's Point, thence to Saratoga. Palace 
cars are run through from Montreal to Saratoga and New York. 

Another route from Montreal is via Grand Trunk R.R. to St. 
John's, thence via Central Vermont to Rutland, where you change 
cars ; thence via Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s R.R. to Saratoga. 

Or, by Grand Trunk R.R. to Rouse's Point, Lake Champlain 
Steamers to Ticonderoga, thence by Del. and Hud. Canal Co.'s 
R.R. to Saratoga Springs. This latter route is the more delight- 
ful, as it takes the tourist through the glorious scenery of Lake 
Champlain, on the fine steamers of the Lake, and also allowi § 
divergence at Ticonderoga, via Lake George. 

7 




Methodist Church, from top of Grand Union Hotel. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE VILLAGE. 

In approaching Saratoga Springs, over two railways, either 
from the north or south, the traveler meets with a surprise. The 
change from open farms to close-built town is abrupt, and the 
cars are among the houses, and at the station, almost before the 
Selds are missed. From the south, the first intimation is the lit- 
tle group of cottages, clustered about the Geyser Springs, per- 
haps three minutes before the train stops. From the north, the 
bran-new villas and embryo streets of Excelsior Park, the tow- 
ers and the mansard roofs of the great hotels, flash past just as 
the brakes begin to pull up for the depot. In either case the 
train slides along the same covered platform, and "Saratoga" ia 
announced. The intelligent brakeman knows the station is real- 
ly " Saratoga Springs," but, with that freedom for which he is 
famous, he clips the " Springs." Saratoga is quite another place. 
This is Saratoga Springs, properly so called. The long platform 
swarms with importunate hackmen, and, were it not for good po- 
licing, the arrival would be a trifle formidable. The prudent 
passenger will provide for the transportation of his baggage, 
before he reaches the depot, by giving up his checks to the 
agent of the 

Saratoga Baggage Express. 

This company transports baggage to any part of the town foi 
the small sum of twenty-five or fifty cents, and is a regularly 
organized and responsible concern. The agent will pass through 
the cars, just before the train reaches Saratoga, soliciting checks. 
He can bo readily recognized by the badge on his hat, and pas- 
sengers need have no doubts of his integrity or authority, foi 

8 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

none but the reliable agent of the Express Company is allowed 
on the cars. By giving him your checks, you will save much 
inconvenience, and have your baggage promptly delivered at 
your boarding-house, without further trouble. To find the por 
ter of your house, a glance at the row of signs overhead vvili 
show just where the correct man stands, and where you should 
go to find him. Each hotel has a reliable man under its sign, 
and the badge on his hat will make the assurance sure. Give 
him your checks, and then walk to the house. The most distant 
hotel, except the Mansion House, is only four blocks away, and 
the little walk will properly introduce one to the place. Unless 
there are boat or horse-races going on, there is no need to hasten 
to secure rooms. This is the land of vast hotels, and a party of 
six or more is a small affair where twenty thousand people 
may be lodged at once. Opposite the station rise the huge, yel- 
low walls of the United States Hotel, and the street beside it 
leads one to the left, directly upon Broadway, the main thorough- 
fare of the village. Reaching this street, with the United 
States on the Southern corner (right), and the Arlington on 
the northern (left) corner, we find ourselves in the center of the 
town, on the wide avenue called Broadway. The street is sup- 
posed to run up to the north, or left, and down to the south, or 
right. The Adelphi, American, Grand Union, Congress Hall, 
Columbian, Clarendon, Windsor and Everett, are to the right ; the 
Holden, Waverly, Washington Hall and Broadway Hall are to 
the left, and each faces the street. The Kensington is one block 
east of Congress Spring, near the corner of Circular Street and 
Union Avenue. To reach the other hotels and boarding houses, 
the porter will point the way ; and each is within ten minutes, 
excepting the Mansion House, at Excelsior Park. 

Having found one's house, and a little leisure, it may be in 
order to look at the village. Saratoga Springs is a village of 
hotels and dwelling houses. There are few or no manufactories, 
and its streets seem devoted to elegant leisure or abundant 
shopping. Its surface is mainly level, except where a shallow val- 
ley winds in a general north-easterly direction through the center. 
Through this runs a little brook, and, by its banks, at the bot- 
tom of the valley, may be found most of the more famouf 

9 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

mineral springs. On either side of this valley the ground it 
level, and forms the top of a piece of elevated table-land, a 
mile or two in diameter. It is evident that a " fault" occurred 
here in the geological formation ; for, on the west side of this 
valley, the foundation rock underlying the plateau crops out 
to the surface, while on the east side, for several feet, nothing 
but sand is found. The Town Hall, on the corner of Broadway 
and Lake Street, marks the center of population. The geograph- 
ical center is, perhaps, a quarter of a mile to the south-east 
of this point. Immediately beyond the village, and in nearly 
every direction, the country becomes broken, so that the out- 
skirts are varied and pleasing, while the village itself is suflQ- 
ciently level for comfortable walking. 

The principal street is Broadway, extending a little east of 
north through the entire village, and making the grand drive 
and promenade, where all the life, business, and pleasure of the 
place may be seen in a five-minutes' walk. This concentration of 
the hotels and stores in one street, and in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of nearly all of the springs, gives the village a singular 
aspect ; for, away from this center, there is nothing but houses, 
cottages, and villas, each in prim fashion facing its quiet, 
shady street — a village of homes. 

Broadway is peculiar and original. The hotels, the elegant 
stores, the fine rows of trees, the broad borders of sod, and the 
throng of carriages and people that crowd its walks and roads, 
present a spectacle unlike anything else in the world. Newport 
and Interlaken, Ems and Long Branch, have their special 
charms, but nowhere is so much of caravansary and general 
splendor concentrated in so limited a space. No other resort 
can show two such palaces as the Grand Union and Congress 
Hall, facing each other on one street. Perhaps no other place 
would lug two such monster buildings into such pronounced 
rivalry. Be that as it may, here they stand, and the general 
effect is remarkable, and a trifle oppressive. There is too much of 
architectural glory ; but the American likes grandeur, and here he 
has it, in a profusion perfectly dazzling. There is a slight bend 
in the street, in the neighborhood of Congress Hall, and standing 
here, one may look in either direction, and feel a natural prid« 

10 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

in his country, that such monuments to American wealth, skill, 
and culture, can be taken in at a single glance. Certainly, there 
is but one Saratoga in the world. 

Five minutes' walk, up or down Broadway, takes one past all 
the great houses and the best stores. Congress Park and its 
springs give a rural aspect to the avenue, and the stately row? 
of trees afford agreeable shade. The walks are good, and thf 
road well kept. Thousands crowd the way in elegant attire, 
and there is a world of faces and things to see and admire. The 
throng of carriages passes in brilliant procession, flowers and 
elegant drapery fill the windows and frame the faces looking out 
making a bit of realistic fairy-land that wins the attention at 
every step. The view of the village from the top of the large 
hotels or the Town Hall is very delightful. The numerous shade 
trees give the town the appearance of a very beautiful forest 
city, and the view will fully repay the slight trouble of a few 
steps to one of these elevations. 

Away from Broadway one sees home-life, quiet or gay, sobei 
or festive, in countless houses, stretching through well-swept 
shady streets in endless variety. Round all is the charming open 
country, with woods, lakes, and meadows, and with mountain 
ranges to fringe the blue horizon. The houses are generally small 
as if the house-keeper did not intend to be much cumbered with 
the cares of many rooms. Every house has its own garden, and 
grass is freely used as a general outdoor carpet and embroidery. 
Many of the houses are of brick, and all exhibit a refreshing 
freedom of design, as if the owners had their own ideas of 
comfort, and meant their homes to express themselves. If they 
do, the Saratogians are a goodly people, cleanly, hospitable, and 
agreeable. Everything is as neat as wax, and there is an air of 
elegant finish about the houses and gardens that is infinitely sug- 
gestive and comforting. The visitor at once concludes that a 
residence among such homes must be pleasant, and there he is 
certainly correct. The attractions of Saratoga as a residence are 
being appreciated by some of the wealthier classes, and already 
several prominent families from the large cities have established 
their residence here. 

Nor are sanitary essentials neglected. With all the paint an* 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

varnish, sod-work and gilding, there is no slighting of the unseen 
works upon which the health and well-being of every town 
must be built. Excelsior Lake furnishes abundant supplies of 
pure water, and, by the use of the Holly system of waterworks 
it is delivered at every door for domestic and fire purpoaes. 
Every street is lighted with gas, and abundant sewers prevent 
all danger of typhoid visitations. This last and most important 
matter was formerly much neglected ; but now, ample sewerage 
works have been provided and the place is perfectly secure. 




THE TOWN HALL. 

Using the front Bteps of Congress Hall as a convenient pivot 
upon which to turn to find the chief points of convenience and 
interest, the springs, churches, etc. , may be noticed as follows : 
The Post-Office is in the Arcade, on Broadway, nearly opposite 
the United States Hotel, with entrances on Broadway an* Phils 
Street. 12 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Town Hall is on the east side of Broadway, on the cornel 01 
the fourth block to the right. The hall and reading rooms oi 
the Young Men's Christian Association are in the Town Hal] 
building. 

The churches of Saratoga Springs are commodious and 
elegant, and designed for the accommodation of both transient 
and permanent residents. The regular pastors are men of abil- 
ity and worth, and the various pulpits are often filled during the 
summer season by eminent divines from all parts of the country. 

The Methodist church, a handsome structure of brick, with 
sandstone trimmings, is on the north side of Washington Street. 
To reach it, cross the street to the sidewalk opposite, turn to 
the right, and Washington Street is the first turn on the left 
The church is near Broadway, on the right. 

The Episcopal church is on Washington Street, and directly 
in the rear of the Grand Union Hotel. 

The Presbyterian church, a large brick building with a tall 
spire, is next beyond the Town Hall, and in the fourth block to 
the right, on the same side of the street. 

The Baptist church is located on Washington Street, just be 
yond the Methodist church. To reach it, cross to the walk in 
front of the Grand Union Hotel, turn to the right, and take the 
first left. 

The Congregational church is over the Post-Office, on Phila 
Street. Walk along Broadway to the right, and take the second 
turn to the right. 

The Catholic church is located on South Broadway, corner 
of William Street, and opposite the Clarendon Hotel. 

The Second Presbyterian Society occupy Newland chapel on 
Spring Street. Spring Street joins Congress Hall on the right, 
and the chapel is in the fourth block from the hotel. 

The Free Methodist chapel is located on Regent Street. 
Regent is the third street east of Congress Hall, on Spring 
Street. The hours of service and the names of the pastors may 
be found in the Saturday edition of the Saratoga daily papers. 

The Temple Grove Seminary is located at the junction oi 
Spring and Circular Streets. Follow- Spring Street, from thf 
north side of Congress Hail to the second cross street. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

To find the springs quickly, the visitor may start from Cos 
gi*ss Hall as follows : — Congress and Columbia Springs, turn U 
left ; Hathorn and Hamilton Springs, take first turn to right from 
Broadway ; Putnam Spring, follow Broadway to right to second 
right-hand turn; Pavilion Spring, follow Broadway to third 
tarn to right ; Seltzer, High Rock, Star, and Empire Springs, 
follow Broadway to sixth turn to right ; the second turn to left 
Till then lead to steps above the springs. To find the Old Red 
and Saratoga "A" Springs take same route as for Empire Spring 
and walk on past it along edge of brook. Washington and 
Crystal Springs are easily reached from Congress Hall by walk- 
ing one block to the left. Excelsior Spring is more distant, and 
may be reached from the Old Red Spring by following the town- 
road to the right, past the Water Works. The Geyser, Cham- 
pion, Triton and other springs in that group are about, twenty 
minutes walk to the south. To reach them, turn to left and fol 
low South Broadway to Ballston Avenue, opposite the end of 
Congress Park. This road turns off to the right, diagonally, and 
the walk, though sunny, is pleasant and easy. The Race Course 
is perhaps eight or ten minutes' walk to the east of Congress 
Hall. East Congress Street, on the south side of the hotel, leada 
directly to the wide avenue known as Union Avenue, and the 
grand entrance is easily found on the sight, near the end of the 
fifth block from Congress Hall. The Circular Railway and on« 
of the Indian Encampments are also on this road, on the left, in 
the second block from Broadway. 

Other places of interest and the routes to them are detail©?} 
*l»ewhere. 

14 




CHAPTER III. 

THE HOTELS. 

The hotels at Saratoga Springs are among the largest, the mart 
ooetly, elegant, and comfortable in the world. For nearly a cen- 
tury people have journeyed to these springs, to drink their healing 
waters; and, as one day's visit is hardly worth the while, they 
have sought a home here during the summer season. It is thia 
that has caused the village to open its doors so freely, and to build 
up, from a small beginning, a system of hotels and boarding- 
houses unlike anything else to be found. Added to this came, in 
time, the demands of the merely pleasure-seeking, fashionable 
world. People came to the springs for the sake of the gay com- 
pany gathered here, and from year to year the hotels have grown, 
expanding their wings and adding room beyond room, till they 
cover acres of ground, and the halls and piazzas stretch out into 
miles. They have a bewildering fashion here of repeating the 
wondrous tale of these things. They talk about the miles of car- 
peting ; the thousands upon thousands of doors and windows ; 
the hundreds of miles of telegraph wires ; vast acres of marble 
floors ; and tons of eatables stored in the pantries, till one is lost 
in admirable confusion. It is all true, and that is the wonder of 
it. The management that governs it all is more remarkable than 
the gilding and mirrors. It is a sort of high science, unequaled 
in the world, combining the " ease of mine inn," and a perfection 
of detail and freedom from friction that is as pleasant as it ii 
wonderful. 

Saratoga's face is her fortune, and it is said that the entire 
town devotes its days and nights to the comfort of the tourist. 
The tourist should be indeed happy. If he is not, it is safe to say 
it is his own fault. In speaking of these hotels, the four great 
houses are mentioned first. The smaller ones are noticed in th« 
order of their size. The numerous boarding houses will be ooo 
*der*d in the next chapter. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Congress Hall 

Is built on the site of the old and famous hotel of the same name 
which was burned in 1866, and occupies the larger part of the 
square bounded by Broadway, East Congress, Spring and Put- 
nam Streets. Its situation is in the very center of the gay and 
fashionable hotel world of Saratoga, and is admirably arranged 
for seeing all the attractive phases of the "great watering- 
place " life. Its frontage on Broadway, the principal street of 
the town, is 416 feet, with a high promenade piazza 20 feet wide 
and 249 feet in length, commanding a view of the most brilliant 
portion of Saratoga. From the Broadway front two immense 
wings, 300 feet long, extend to Putnam Street, the northern 
wing, running along Spri»g Street and overlooking the celebrated 
Hathorn and Hamilton Springs on one side, and with the central 
wing which runs parallel with it, enclosing a very beautiful 
garden-plot. The southern front commands a full view of the 
famous Congress and Columbian Springs, and the beautiful Con- 
gress Park, owned and adorned by the Congress and Empire 
Spring Co. Ample piazzas extend around the back of the hotel, 
overlooking the grass and garden-plots of the interior court, afford- 
ing cool and shady retreats in the afternoon, when entrancing 
music is discoursed by one of the best hotel bands in Saratoga. 

Congress Hall is built in the most substantial manner of brick 
with brown-stone trimmings, and presents one of the most grace- 
ful architectural appearances in Saratoga. Its walls are 20 
inches thick and hollow in the center, thus securing great strength 
and protection from heat of summer. The roof is a Mansard, 
with three pavilions, which afford wide and delightful views from 
the promenades on top. Interior fire-walls are provided to pre- 
vent the spread of fire, and Otis elevators afford easy access to 
all the floors of the house. The rooms are all large, high and 
well ventilated, and properly provided with annunciators, gas, 
etc. The halls, dining-rooms, parlors, and offices are of grand 
proportions, and are furnished with an elegance that bespeaks 
comfort and neatness in all its departments. The ventilation of 
the dining-room and kitchen has been much improved, and a 
Steam Heating Apparatus introduced on the main floor for use 
whenever changes in the temperature require it. Hot and cold 

16 




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SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

water have been carried to every floor, and a large number of 
baths and closets added for the convenience of guests. 

There has also been a conrplete renovation of the furniture, 
and the rooms, halls, and parlors have been recarpt^ted, and 200 
rooms refurnished throughout and the walls refmished. The 
public parlors have been refurnished with new Wilton carpets, 
and the reception rooms, office and dining-room renewed. The 
kitchen department has been thoroughly reorganized at a large 
expense, and will this year be made equal to the best. The 
office has been tiled and greatly improved. The laundry has 
been greatly improved and its facilities increased. 

The rooms of Congress Hall are larger, and therefore afford 
pleasanter and more healthy apartments than any other hotel in 
Saratoga, and will accommodate over 1,000 guests in the most 
comfortable style. The beds are the easiest and best spring and 
hair mattresses to be found in this country, and ample presses, 
closets, etc. , afford all desirable conveniences. The ball-room of 
the Congress is one of the finest in Northern New York, being 
most exquisitely frescoed and adorned with costly chandeliers 
and ornaments. It is in the block across Spring Street, but is 
connected with the north wing of the hotel by a light, graceful 
iron bridge suspended over the street, covered and protected, 
which, when illuminated on hop nights, is very picturesque. 

Congress Hall is favored with a superior class of visitors, which 
annually includes the finest families of our metropolitan cities. 

In 1878, Mr. W. H. Clement, of Cincinnati, Ohio, President of 
the Cincinnati and Southern K. E. Co., and Mr. John Cox, of 
New York, gentlemen of large means, purchased Congress Hall 
and have since added many improvements. They have placed it 
under its present efficient and popular management, which now 
includes Mr. R. H. Southgate, who has attained distinction as a 
manager of first-class hotels and who was proprietor of Congress 
Hall in its palmiest days, when it stood without a rival in Saratoga. 
The great success of Congress Hall is complete proof of the 
efficiency and popularity of the management. Owing to the very 
low purchase price of the hotel, the proprietors feel able to keep 
up the standard of style of its former glorious years and yet 
keep the prices at the lowest possible and present popular rates. 
The hotel opens June 10th. 

17 



8AKAT0GA ILLUSTRATED. 

United States Hotel. 

This magnificent structure was completed in June, 1874, and 
is situated on the block bounded by Broadway and Division 
Street, on the site of the old United States Hotel, around which 
so many pleasant memories cluster, but which was burned a few 
years ago. It constitutes one continuous line of buildings, si* 
stories high, over 1,500 feet in length, containing 917 rooms for 
guests, and is the largest hotel in the world. The architectural 
appearance is exceedingly elegant and beautiful. It is Norman 
in style, and its Mansard roof is embellished with pediments, ga- 
bles, dormer windows and crestings, and three large pavilions. 

The building covers and encloses seven acres of ground in th« 
form of an irregular pentagon, having a frontage of 232 feet on 
Broadway, 656 feet on Division Street, with "Cottage Wing" on 
the south side of the plaza, extending west from the main front 
for 566 feet. This wing is one of the most desirable features of 
this admirably- arranged house, as it affords families, and other 
parties, the same quiet and seclusion which a private cottage would 
afford, together with the attention and conveniences of a first- 
class hotel. The rooms of this wing are arranged in suites of 
one to seven bedrooms, with parlor, bath-room, and water-closet 
in each suite. Private table is afforded if desired, and the seclu- 
sion and freedom of a private villa may be enjoyed here, to be 
varied, at will, by the gayer life of the hotel and watering place. 

The main front and entrance is on Broadway, in which is the 
elegant drawing-room, superbly furnished with Axminster car- 
pets, carved walnut and marble furniture, frescoed ceilings, 
elegant lace curtains, and costly chandeliers and mirrors. The 
room is rich and tasteful in its entire arrangements. Across the 
hall is the ladies' parlor, furnished with exquisite taste ; and be- 
yond, at the corner of the Broadway and Division Street fronts, 
are the gentlemen's reading-rooms and the business offices of the 
hotel. To the vv«st of the office in the Division Street wing, is 
the dining-hall, 52 by 212 feet with 20 £ feet ceiling ; beyond 
which are the private drawing-rooms, the children's ordinary 
carving-rooms, etc. The grand ball-room, 112 by 53 feet, with 
oeilings 26 feet high, is on the second floor of the Division Street 
wing, and is decorated with artistic and appropriate adornments 

18 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The arrangement of the sleeping apartments of this hotel is excel 
lent, and its rooms are furnished with gas, water, and marbU 
basins throughout. It is the only hotel in Saratoga that is thor» 
oughly plumbed and has running water in all its rooms. All the 
rooms are connected with the office by an electric annunciator 
The entire building is divided into five sections by thick, fire- 
proof walls, and the openings through them are protected bj 
heavy iron doors, thus affording great protection in case of fire; 
There are also fire-hydrants in each section, with hose attached, 
an each floor. There are ten staircases which afford ample 
means of escape from fire. Two elevators are used solely foi 
oonveying guests to the various floors, and every convenience ha* 
been adopted in equipping this elegant hotel for its immense 
summer business. Upon the Broadway front is a fine piazza, 232 
feet long, three stories high, overlooking the center of the village ; 
and one on Division Street, 200 feet in length. Extensive piazzas, 
2,300 feet in length, for promenades, encircle the large interiol 
court, which is ornamented with beautiful shade-trees, sparkling 
fountains, graceful lawn-statuary, and meandering walks ; anci, 
during the evening, when illuminated with colored lights and 
lanterns, and enlivened with exquisite music, the scene is brilliant 
and fascinating in the extreme. 

In fact, everything that is needed to make the hotel attractive 
and convenient is found here, and the United States Hotel stands 
unexcelled in its furnishing and arrangements by any of the hotels 
of the great watering-place. As one looks upon this palatial 
structure, and carefully inspects the detailed arrangements for 
the perfect convenience and comfort of its guests, he can but be 
amazed at the enterprise^ and courage of its owners, who have 
opened to the world this stupendous establish\ne*it. This immense 
and elegant hotel is managed by gentlemen of great experience. 
The Hon. James M.Marvin, who is well known to all old frequent- 
are of Saratoga, has the general control of the whole interest, 
nrhile Messrs. Tompkins, Perry, Gage, and Janvrin, are the lessee! 
and proprietors. Under their able and successful management, 
the house has steadily gained in favor and become known as the 
moet elegant and aristocratic summer resort in the world. Guest* 
can rely on having everything provided that will conduce to theii 
comfort and happiness. 



SaJUTOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The Grand Union Hotel. 



Thia palatial hotel occupies almost the entire square bounded 
by Broadway, Congress, Federal, and Washington Streets, in thf 
very center of the town. It is a magnificent structure of brick 
and iron of modern style, with a street frontage of 2,400 feet. 
It is undoubtedly the largest and most elegantly furnished water- 
ing-place hotel in the world. Along its entire Broadway front of 
800 feet runs a graceful iron piazza three stories high, affording a 
splendid promenade which overlooks the liveliest portion of 
Broadway, and the beautiful Congress Park and Spring. The 
interior arrangements of this hotel are unsurpassed for complete- 
ness, convenience, and elegance by any watering-place hotel in 
the world. The main entrance and office is at the center of the 
Broadway front, in the rotunda, which is eighty feet in diameter, 
and extends to the top of the house, with balconies on each of the 
five stories overlooking the entrance and grand saloon about the 
office. To the left of the office are reception-rooms, and the 
grand saloon parlor, the most beautifully decorated and hand- 
somely furnished drawing-room in the world, and in the summer 
evenings, during the season, presents the most brilliant scene of 
watering-place festivities to be found. 

Passing through the drawing-room, we find other smaller private 
parlors, and turning to the right, into the Congress Street wing, 
we enter the spacious and elegant dining-hall, 60 feet wide, 275 
feet long, beautifully frescoed, and furnished with Bplendid mir- 
rors, which reflect the festal scene, and add lustre to the brilliant 
assemblies which congregate in this sumptuous dining-hall. The 
dining-room has been lengthened 75 feet, a new fire-proof kit- 
chen and serving -rooms added, and the ventilation of the whole 
^uisine department made the most perfect possible. The dining- 
and its appurtenances are now undoubtedly the finest and 
most complete in the world. 

The rooms of the hotel are elegantly furnished, and many are 
arranged in suites for family use, handsomely frescoed, and sup- 
plied with pure, fresh, running spring-water, hot and cold, in 
every room. Three elevators are now in operation, and guests 

are conveyed to and from the five floors with the utmost east 

tfU 



8ABAT0GA ILLUSTRATED. 

and despatch. The hotel fronts on three streets, thus affording 
a large number of outside rooms, while the rear rooms open upon 
the handsome interior court- square, beautifully adorned with 
trees, shrubs, and flowers, presenting a delightful view of genu- 
ine artistic landscape gardening. On three sides of this court is 
a wide promenade piazza, which affords delightful retreat, and 
yet commands a scene of entrancing beauty. The interiox 
grounds have been greatly beautified and enlarged by the re« 
moval of the Opera House and adjacent buildings, and the ex« 
tension of new walks, and retreats to Federal and Washington 
Streets. Its grounds are the largest connected with any hotel in 
Saratoga, and the magnificent elms afford delightful shade dur- 
ing the summer days of the season. 

The new ball-room, 60x85 feet, built in 1876, is most beauti- 
fully proportioned and frescoed, and adorned with balconies of 
the most attractive character. Yvon's Grand Centennial Pic- 
ture, u The Genius of America," painted expressly for the late 
Mr. Stewart, occupies one entire end of the room. The assem- 
blies in this beautiful hall are unexcelled in brilliancy by any 
similar entertainments in the country. The music is supplied by 
an excellent band of artistic performers, and concerts are given 
every morning on the piazzas of the hotel, and hops every even- 
ing in the ball-room. Entertainments for the children, under 
the direction of competent professors, are held every week. 
Garden Parties and summer-night "Fete Champetres" are given 
frequently during the season, and a "German " once each week. 
No effort or expense is spared by the managers to secure the 
highest enjoyment possible to tne guests of the Grand Union at 
these entertainments. 

Billiard-tables and new bowling-alleys are provided for the ex 
elusive use of guests, and all facilities that can conduce to com 
fort and entertainment are provided by the liberal management 
of this palatial hotel. 

Its past management has secured for it a most enviable repu 
tation ; but Mr. Henry Clair, the present lessee, ia,determined 
the Grand Union shall stand pre-eminent, for completeness, 
vastness, and elegance, above all the watering-place hotels in th« 
world. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Adelphi Hotel. 

This elegant hotel was built in the spring of 1877, and is a 
model modern hotel in every particular. It is centrally located 
on Broadway, between the two mammoth hotels, United States 
and Grand Union, within three minutes' walk of the Congress, 
Hathorn, Columbian, Hamilton, and Washington Springs. The 
Adelphi has a large piazza, three stories high, fronting on Broad- 
way, and elevated far enough above the street to command a 
fine view of Saratoga's most brilliant thoroughfare, and at the 
same time shield guests from street annoyances. There is a very 
broad sidewalk between it and the carriage-way of Broadway, 
thus removing it from the noise and dust of the street. 

The rooms are large and are very liberally furnished, and some 
are arranged in suites, for family use, with every modern con- 
venience, marble basins, hot and cold running water, bath-rooms, 
clothes-presses, closets, etc. 

The Adelphi was first opened in the summer of 1877, and at 
once took rank among the best of the Saratoga hotels, and has 
maintained a first-class reputation. It is not as large as some of 
the mammoth hotels, but its modern construction, convenient 
arrangements, excellent cuisine and central location, have made 
it a favorite home, both to the visitor for pleasure and the man 
of business. Its broad piazzas commanding delightful views, 
neat and cpaiet appearance, and liberal supply of clothes-presses 
and closets, have added special attractions for the ladies, who 
appreciate its convenient accommodations. Its popularity has 
compelled the proprietor to enlarge its facilities, and since the 
close of the season of 1883 a new story has been added. It can 
now furnish a comfortable and elegant temporary home for about 
200 guests. 

The guests of this fine hotel are of the very best classes of peo- 
ple, and many distinguished visitors have been liberally enter- 
tained at the Adelphi. The proprietor of the Adelphi is Mr. Wil- 
liam H. McCaffrey, who has had much experience as a caterer to 
the visitors of Saratoga Springs, and who knows what tourists 
require, and how to conduct a first-class hotel. The Adelphi will 
be kept open until November 1st. The prices for board are very 
moderate. 

22 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Clarendon Hotel. 

This excellent house stands on Broadway, a short distanoe south 
of Congress Street, on one of the pleasantest sites in the village. 
Recent improvements have made this part of Broadway one 
of the most attractive portions of the great watering place. 
The Clarendon is the only hotel in Saratoga which has a mineral 
spring within its own grounds. It partly incloses within its wings 
a depression or valley, ornamented with shade trees, among 
which stands the tasteful pagoda covering the popular Washington 
Spring. The Leland Spring, named in honor of the former pro- 
prietor of the hotel, is also within these grounds. These spring 
waters are among the most valuable of the Saratoga waters, the 
Washington Spring being a tonic water, highly prized by Saratoga 
residents, and popular with the visitors. Congress Spring Park is 
immediately opposite the Clarendon, and such of its guests as 
prefer Congress or Columbian waters to that which springs within 
their own dooryard can easily reach them. The Clarendon has 
always had the reputation of having the very best class of guests. 
It has a quiet air of refinement about all its arrangements, and 
one feels quite at home in this cheerful and elegant hotel. The 
cuisine has always been noted for its excellence. The Clarendon 
can accommodate about 500 guests, and its arrangement is every 
way calculated to give satisfaction to those who patronize it as a 
summer resort. An excellent band discourses delightful music 
daily, morning and evening, from the piazza overlooking the in- 
terior court, which is illuminated in the evening, and presents a 
very picturesque effect. Over fifty thousand dollars have recently 
been expended in remodeling, modernizing, and equipping this 
hotel in the most improved manner. Among the improvements is 
the addition of a new Otis Passenger Elevator. The piazzas have 
been rebuilt and enlarged. Charles Losekam, proprietor of the 
Clarendon, also conducts the new and elegant Genesee Hotel, at 
Buffalo. Parties visiting Niagara Falls and vicinity will find 
the Genesee, at Buffalo, to be the finest hotel in Western New 
Xbrk. Mr. Losekam personally superintends these hotels, 
which is a guarantee of experienced and successful management. 

21 a 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The American. 

The most centrally located hotel in Saratoga, being between the 
United States and Grand Union Hotels, and in the very center 
of the most frequent promenades. The American is within two 
minutes walk of the Congress Spring Park, and near all the 
principal springs and attractions, including Congress Spring and 
Park, Columbian Spring, Hathorn Spring, Hamilton Spring, 
Washington Spring, the Post-Office and the Eailroad Depot. It 
fronts Broadway, the great thoroughfare, promenade and drive 
of the town, and its wide piazza affords a very favorable oppor- 
tunity for seeing the promenade of the Saratoga visitors, and the 
grand procession of splendid equipages and turn-outs that daily 
pass the American, during the height of the season. While the 
American is not so large as some of the hotels of Saratoga, it af- 
fords equally good accommodations at less cost, and without the 
confusion sometimes connected with the great hotels. 

The house has been greatly improved since its thorough re- 
modeling recently. Several suites of rooms, fronting on Broad- 
way and Washington Street, have been added. This important 
addition will give guests a choice of some of the most desirable 
rooms in Saratoga. Steam Heat has also been introduced, which 
will insure comfort in damp or chilly evenings. This is a mat- 
ter of no small importance in Saratoga, where the summers are 
always cool. 

The American accommodates comfortably about 300 guests, just 
large enough to avoid the bustle and crowding of a mammoth 
hot. The sleeping rooms are large and furnished with com- 
fortable spring beds, good bedroom furniture and gas light. 
Electric bells connect every guest-chamber with the office, and 
the service is prompt and efficient. The cuisine of the Ameri- 
can is supplied with all the delicacies and substantial of the sea- 
son, and the mode of service will be found to be thoroughly satis- 
factory. The prices are very reasonable. This is the fourth sea- 
son of the American under the management of Messrs. Farn- 
ham & Bush, who have been successful and merited the large 
patronage they have received. Under their management the 
American has becomp one of the most popular of Saratoga's 
numerous hotels. 

22 a 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The Arlington Hotel. 
Is situated on the corner of Broadway and Division Street, 
directly opposite the United States Hotel. It is one of the best 
constructed Hotels in Saratoga, and will accommodate about 300 
gaests. The building is of brick, and is of modern and im- 
proved arrangement in its interior plan. It is five stories high, 
surmounted with a Mansard roof, and presents a very neat and 
arttactive exterior on the fashionable avenue of the town. 




Its rooms are particularly desirable, as they command views of 
the liveliest portions of Broadway and the business center of the 
place. Extending along the Broadway front is a fine broad 
piazza, two stories high, which commands an extended view of 
Broadway. This hotel is less than two minutes walk from the 
Railroad Depot, and is open all the year round at uniform rates. 
J. P. Dennin, Proprietor, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

23 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The Columbian. 
The Columbian is situated on South Broadway, opposite Con- 
gress Park, near the center of all the attractions. A more beau- 
tiful and central location is not to be found in Saratoga. Congress, 
Columbian, Crystal and Washington Springs are in full view 




from the piazzas, and the popular drives to Geyser Spring and 
Ballston are past this hotel. The house is built of brick, and 
has a frontage of 132 feet on Broadway, with a wide two-story 
piazza 125 feet long. The back piazza, 115 feet long, overlooks its 
own beautiful grounds, and as one of these piazzas is always 
shaded, a pleasant retreat is furnished every hour of the day. 
All the rooms of the Columbian have pleasant outlooks, and are 
well furnished. 

The Columbian has been leased for a term of years by Mr. 
James M. Case, proprietor Pulaski House, Savannah, Ga., which 
places it under as good management as that of any other Sara- 
toga hotel. Cuisine under Prof. Alexander Monttrian, of Fifth 
Avenue Hotel, N. Y. No expense spared in any department to 
suit the most fastidious tastes. Terms, $3 per day, and from $15 
to $21 npr week. 

24 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The Windsor Hotel. 



This house was built in the spring of 1876, and opened fot the 
first time to the public in June of that year. It proved an unfor^ 
tunate investment for its original owners, and has since passed 
into the hands of Hon. Henry Hilton, who has enlarged and im- 
proved it, and opened it as a first-class hotel, under the manage- 
ment of Mr. Henry Clair. It stands on the corner of Broadway 
and William Street, and commands a fine view of Broadway, the 
principal street of the village. From the roof of the house the 
view commands a wide range of the country, embracing in its 
scope several villages in Saratoga County. The Hudson Valley, 
the Green Mountains in the distant east, the Greenfield Hills and 
Adirondack Mountains on the north and west, with the village 
of Saratoga Springs and Congress Park in immediate prospect 

Huestis House. 

This popular summer house, open from May 15 to November 1, 
is situated on South Broadway, within one block of the Congress 
and Hathorn Springs. It has been under the same management 
for the past eighteen years, and has accommodations for 150 
guests. Being an old-established house, its patrons are among the 
leading citizens of all parts of the country, thus making the so- 
cial life delightful throughout the season. 

The house is furnished in modern style, rooms single or en 
suite, well ventilated and supplied with the best electric annunci- 
ators, bath-rooms, and other modern improvements. The par- 
lors are large and handsomely furnished. 

Steam heat has been introduced and extended throughout the 
house, so that the cool and rainy days never bring the chilly air 
to any part of the establishment. Many of the rooms are also 
supplied with open wood fire-places. The dining-room is very 
commodious and cheerful, and will seat over one hundred guests. 
The children's ordinary supplies a separate dining-room for chil- 
dren and nurses. The cuisine is excellent, and the mode of ser- 
vice unexcelled. Address M. B. Huestis, manager, Saratoga 
Springs, N, Y. 

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CHAPTER IV. 
INSTITUTIONS AND BOARDING-HOUSES. 

The institutions and boarding-houses of Saratoga afford excel 
lent accommodations, at moderate prices, and are decidedly home 
like and healthful. Many of them have beautiful lawns for cro- 
quet and out-door sports, and are very attractive in their external 
surroundings, while the prices for board are very moderate. 

The institutions for the special treatment of diseases in Sara- 
toga are few, but one or two are recognized by the medical 
fraternity as quite superior, and are certainly well supplied with 
medical appliances, and under competent management. We call 
attention especially to 

Drs. Strong's Remedial Institute. 

This excellent institution is pleasantly located on Circular 
street, the most beautiful avenue in Saratoga, within five minutes 
easy walk of the great hotels, Congress Spring Park, Ha! horn 
and the principal springs, and other sources of attraction. It is 
just retired enough for rest, and just near enough to all the whirl. 

The institution has the table, appointments and elegance of a 
first-class hotel. Its bath department compares favorably w ith 
the best metropolitan establishments, and offers the only oppor- 
tunity in Saratoga for obtaining Turkish, Russian, Roman and 
Electro-thermal baths. Abundant facilities are afforded fo.- 
recreation and amusement, comprising organ, pianos, parlor 
entertainments, fine croquet ground, gymnasium, etc. A marked 
and very pleasant feature of the house is its genial cultured 
society anJ homelike sociability. It is the summer resort of 
many eminent persons for rest and recreation. 

Among its patrons are Rev. Theo. L. Cuyler, D.D. (B'klyn), 
Rev. Chas: F. Deems, D.D. (N. Y.), Rev. Jos. R. Kerr, D.D. 
(N. Y.), Rev. C. C. ("Chaplain") McCabe, D.D., Rev. D. K. 
Pierce, D.D. (Zions Herald) ; Bishops Simpson, Foster, Peck, 
Robertson; Prest. Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D. (Union Theol. 
Sem.), Prest. H. A. Buttz, D.D. (Drew Theol. Sem.), Prest. 
Cyrus Hamlin, D.D. (Middleburg) ; Ex-Govs. Wells, (Va.), Page, 

20 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

(Vt.), Boardman,(W. Va.) ; Judges Reynolds, (B'klyn), Drake, 
(Washington), Bliss, (Mo.) ; Prof. Benj. N. Martin, LL.D. (N. Y. 
Univ.), T. Sterry Hunt, LL.D, (Cantab); Med. Profs. Armor, 
(B'klyn), Ross, (Chicago), Knapp, (N. Y.) ; and many others. 

Saratoga Springs should have an institution managed by 
educated physicians, where professional advice with able and 
constant medical supervision can be obtained. Such is Dr. 
Strong's Remedial Institute. A casual observer would not suspect 
its medical character from anything seen in or about it, as there 
is no appearance of invalidism, and its prominent features are 
those of a first-class family hotel. 

The proprietors have received a classical education, and are 
graduates of the Medical Department of the University of the City 
of New York. The institution is endorsed and largely patronized 
by the medical profession. Its ample halls, parlor, dining, bath 
and other public rooms are heated by steam, while its extensive 
piazzas and gymnasium afford opportunities for exercise. 

In addition to the ordinary remedial agents available in general 
practice are such special appliances as Turkish, Russian, Roman, 
Electro-thermal, and every variety of hydrophatic baths, Galvanic 
and Faradic Electricity, Vacuum Treatment, Movement Cure, 
Inhalation ; Medicated Oxygen, Compressed and Rarified air, 
Health Lift, Calisthenics, Mineral Waters, etc., so that the in- 
stitution is furnished with every appliance requisite for the 
treatment of Nervous, Lung, Female and other chronic diseases. 

The dry, uniform and bracing climate, together with the 
cathartic, tonic, diuretic, alkaline and alterative mineral waters, 
form attractions which bring invalids here at all seasons of the 
year. Physicians recognize the importance of the mineral 
waters in many courses of treatment. The danger from their in- 
discriminate use cannot be too strongly emphasized, as much of 
their efficacy and marvelous power over disease is due to their 
proper administration and if ignorantly used they may become as 
potent agents for harm as they should be for good. Over twenty 
years' professional observation and experiencee minently qualify 
the Drs. Strong to give advice in regard to them. The advan- 
tage of a well regulated hygiene institution so completely 
equipped and under the able management of regularly educated 
physicians are obvious. Circulars sent on application. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Irving Hotel 
Xs located centrally on the west side of Broadway between Division 
and Church Streets. Convenient to all the springs. Has fifty 
excellent rooms newly furnished and the proprietors, Messrs. 
Burrows & Moore give satisfaction to their patrons. Open all 
the year at popular prices. 

Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary. 
This excellent institution is situated in the eastern part of the 
village, on what was formerly called Temple Hill, and in the 
midst of Temple Grove. The grounds occupy the whole square 
on Spring Street, between Circular and Regent Streets. It is 
under the efficient management of Prof. Chas. F. Dowd, a grad- 
uate of Yale College, and affords fine advantages for a complete 
and solid education. During the long vacation from June to 
September, the building is opened as a summer resort. 

Broadway Hall. 
This celebrated boarding-house is beautifully located a little 
up Broadway, and on higher ground than any other boarding- 
house in the place, and consequently is airy and healthy. It is 
surrounded by a lawn of about an acre, and in the midst of mag- 
nificent shade-trees, on one of the finest avenues in this country, 
and is within ten minutes' walk of all the principal springs. No 
other house in town has as great a proportion of high, large, 
well ventilated, and pleasant rooms. The proprietor, Mr. W. J. 
Riggs, is one of Saratoga's well-known hotel keepers, and has 
had several years' experience in his business, and spares no effort 
to make the Broadway worthy of the liberal patronage which it 
receives from the best class of people. 

Howland House 
Is a new and excellent boarding house on North Broadway, 
nearly opposite the Waverly House and Mt. McGregor Railway 
Depot. It is one of the finest boarding houses in Saratoga, and 
is in the most charming part of the most beautiful avenue of the 
village. The house has a very fine piazza fronting Broadway and 
commanding a delightful view. The proprietor, Mr. J. Howland, 
is one of Saratoga's most respected citizens, and has had several 
years' experience in caring for summer boarders. 

28 



SARATOGA. ILLUSTRATED, 

The Circular Street House, 
At number 93 Circular Street, between Phila and Spring, is on 
the most beautiful street in Saratoga, near the large hotels, the 
famous Congress and Hathorn Springs, and Congress Spring 
Park. It is a large, first-class boarding-house, with many mod- 
ern improvements, and open from June 1st to October 1st. It is 
kept in excellent style, at very reasonable prices, by Mr. J. Pal- 
mer, who owns the property and conducts the boarding-house. 

The Continental Hotel 
Is centrally located on Washington street, west of Grand Union 
Hotel, and within five minutes' walk of the principal springs and 
hotels. This hotel has large and airy rooms, well shaded piazzas, 
and is under the experienced management of M. E. & C. E. 
Knapp. During the past winter the Continental has been put 
in complete order, and rooms en suite can be furnished for fam- 
ilies, which are also very convenient for transient guests. Satis- 
factory accommodations at reasonable prices. 
Elmwood Hall. 
This boarding-house is located in a quiet, shady spot, near 
the center of the village, one block from Broadway. It is near 
all the Springs. The rooms are large and pleasant, and some are 
connected to accommodate families. Important improvements 
have been made in and around Elmwood Hall, which will add 
much to the comfort of guests. Mr. Potter, the proprietor, spares 
no pains to make the place what everybody who comes to Sara- 
toga seeks — a pleasant home. Terms, $1.25 to $2.25 per day, or 
$7.00 to $12.00 per week during the season. The house is open 
throughout the year. For further particulars, address Emory 
Potter, Saratoga Springs, New York. 

Waverly Hotel. 
This beautifully located family hotel is situated on North 
Broadway, near Hilton's Woodlawn Park, Mount McGregor R. R. 
depot, and all the principal springs. The hotel this year is under 
the management of G. C. Root, and, owing to the central location 
and quiet surroundings, the Waverly is a first-class family hotel, 
combining as it does all the conveniences of a first-class house, 
with the comforts and privacy of a home. Rates are moderate, 
and no pains will be spared by Mr. Root to make the stay of his 
guests at the Waverly memorable to those who seek rest. 

29 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Pitney House, 
On Congress Street, is one of the largest and best boarding-houses 
in Saratoga. It has accommodations for over one hundred guests, 
and is kept by Mr. J. Pitney, who has a large farm of about 175 
acres, from which he supplies the table with fruit, vegetables, 
milk and cream, fresh from the farm twice a day. In this im- 
portant feature of a boarding-house, the Pitney has a very great 
advantage over other houses which depend upon the supplies in 
the village markets. Over three hundred quarts of milk and 
cream are daily furnished to the guests of this house during the 
season. Many of the guests are old patrons, who have boarded 
at this house every season for years, and who appreciate the luxu- 
ries which this house places before its guests at the table. Two 
neat cottages on the grounds adjoining the house, are rented to 
such as desire more seclusion than the large house affords. We 
commend the Pitney as a first-class boarding-house. 

Holden House, 
C. H. Holden, proprietor, is situated on Broadway, three doors 
north of the United States Hotel, in the most central part of the 
village, and near all the principal springs. It is built of "brick 
and can accommodate 100 to 125 guests. Twenty new rooms 
have been added and the whole house refurnished. Its central 
location and moderate prices for board make the Holden House a 
very desirable hotel for visitors who seek real comfort without 
extravagance. Excellent accommodations at reasonable prices. 

Linwood, 
S. M. Van Deusen, proprietor, is an excellent boarding-house, 
on South Broadway, opposite the Windsor Hotel and the Hues- 
tis House. It has equal advantages of location with those excel- 
lent houses, being on the great drive and promenade of the vil- 
lage, and near the Congress, Columbian, Hathorn and Washing- 
ton Springs, the Congress Spring Park, the large hotels and other 
prominent attractions. The Linwood is supplied with electric 
annunciators, and the dining-room has been greatly enlarged and 
improved. This house has been entirely rebuilt in the Queen 
Anne style of architecture, making it one of the most attractive 
houses on South Broadway. The rooms are large and airy, and 
furnished in modern style, with modern conveniences on each 
floor. Guests will be well entertained at the Linwood. 

30 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Mansion House, 
A favorite summer boarding-house, is situated on Spring Avenue, 
within a few rods of Excelsior and Union Springs. It is in the 
midst of the beautiful Excelsior Park, and is surrounded with a 
large and handsome lawn, well covered with tall forest trees. 
Many of the most refined and wealthy families of our great cities 
spend the summer months here, attracted by its proximity to the 
Excelsior, Union, and White Sulphur Springs, the beauty of its 
surroundings, and the superior style in which the house is kept. 
Within the park are several cottages, and families occupying them 
and wishing to avoid the annoyance of cooks and cooking, can 
obtain their meals at the Mansion House, thus combining the 
comforts and privacy of home, with the ease and freedom from 
care of summer boarding. 

The Commercial Hotel 
Stands on the corner of Church and Matilda Streets and Railroad 
Place. It is open all the year. 

31 



SARATOCA ILLUSTRATED. 
HOTELS AND BOARDING HOUSES IN SARATOGA SPRINGS. 



Names. 


Location. 


§1 


Proprietors. 






200 

100 
50 
50 

300 

200 
50 
80 
60 
75 
60 
40 

200 
75 

600 
30 

250 
40 

200 

1500 

80 

100 

200 

50 

75 

75 

2000 

100 
25 

100 
75 

150 
75 

400 
75 
50 
20 
50 
50 
40 
80 
80 

100 

100 
50 
75 
50 
50 

200 
50 

150 
45 
50 


Wm. H. McCaffrey. 
D. Tillotson Gale. 
C. H. Tefft 












Front Street 


J H. Mesick 






Farnham & Bush. 


Arlington Hotel 

Balch, W. S 






W. S. Balch 


Barnard House 


Franklin Street 


S. E. Benedict 


Bates House 


Circular Street 




Broadway Hall 


North Broadway 


W. J. Riggs. 

J. Hine. 

Mrs. Chas. Carpenter 

Mrs. Knapp. 


Broadway House 

Carpenter House 


Broadway, cor. Grove St. . . 
Cot. Union ave. & Circular. 
Washington Street 










Harris & Losekam. 
Miss R. A. Cranmer. 










Columbian Place 

Commercial Hotel 

Congress Hall 


Cor. Broadway & Lake ave. 
Church and R. R. Place. ... 


R. D. McDonald. 
Bryant & Hinckley, 
Clement & Cox. 
Emory Potter. 


Elm wood Hall 


Front Street 


Empire Hotel 

Everett House 


Front and Rock Streets. . . . 
South Broadway 


Foley, James 


South Broadway 


Jas. Foley. 


Franklin House.. . . 


Church Street 








Grand Union Hotel . . . 




Henry Clair. 


Hamilton's Med. Inst. . 


Franklin Street 


Hart, J. S. Rev 


Circular Street 


Rev. J. S. Hart 


Holden House 


North Broadway 


C. H. Holden 


Howland House 


North Broadway 




Huestis House 




M B. Huestis 


Irving House 






Kensington 


Union Ave. near Circular. . 

South Broadway 

Washington, cor. Franklin 
Near oor. Circular & Caroline 


J. H. Rodgers. 
S. M. Van Deusen. 


Lin wood House 

Mabie House 


Magee, Mrs. Austin. . . . 
Manor House 


Mrs. A. Magee. 
Chas. F. Wood 


Mansion House 

Morey House 


Spring av. n. Excelsior Sp'g. 
Franklin Street 


R. S. & F. J. Moscrip. 
Mrs. S. L. Morey. 


Osborn House 

Oakwood 


Front and Vandam Streets. 


Orr House 




Mrs. A. D. Orr. 


Pitney House 

Pleasant Home 


Congress Street 

Federal Street 


J. Pitney. 
L. P. Sawyer. 
S. E. Wing. 
Mrs. J. P. Scoville. 
N. Waterbury. 
Drs. Strong. 


Rossiter House 

Scoville House 

Spencer House 


Cor. Phila & Regents 

Cor. Henry & Phila Sts . . . . 
Matilda Street 


Strong's Remedial Inst. 


Circular Street 


Summit House 


Matilda Street 


Temple Grovo Sem .... 




C. F. Dowd. 


Thorn, S. B 




Mrs. Thorn. 


Trim, Mrs 


Phila Street 

Broadway 

Front and Grove Sts 


Mrs TT P Trim 


United States Hotel 

Vermont House 

Washington Hall 


2000J Tompkins, Gage k Co. 
120 Mrs. Dyer. 
100 A. J. Starr. 


Waverly Hotel 




150 G. C. Root. 


Wayland Mansion 




30 Mrs. M. A.Root.rdon. 


White Street Mansion. . 
"Wilder House 


White Street 

109 Front Street 


40 

50 

300 


Mrs. A. M. Hunting- 
Miss H. S. Coudrey. 


Windsor Hotel 











32 



CHAPTER V. 

THE SPRINGS. 

Scientific and medical writers, during the many years tha 
the Mineral Springs of Saratoga have been known, have fully 
reported upon their history, probable origin, and their chemfbal 
properties. A vast fund of information has been collected foi 
the benefit of invalids, and others who visit them, and the total 
result may be examined in such detail as seems useful and desir- 
able. Saratoga Springs, as a popular resort, has steadily grown 
in favor from year to year ; and its magnificent prosperity must 
have some substantial and enduring foundation, or it would have 
faded into obscurity long since, before the unreasoning caprice 
of fashion. Its springs are the secret of its success. Its min- 
eral waters flow in exhaustless abundance from year to year , 
and, though given away freely to all who care to ask for them, 
and, in bottles or barrels, sent to every State, and half over 
Europe, they run to waste in couutless thousands of gallons. 
(Jpon these free-flowing rivers, bubbling from the hillside, or 
spouting in snow-white fountains half a hundred feet into the 
air, Saratoga has built her faith and her hotels, and has not 
been disappointed. While the waters flow, Saratoga will flour- 
ish and bloom in all the glory of splendid palaces. Added to 
these are the natural beauties of the juace, and the quite as 
pleasing results that have sprung from mingled art and nature. 

The valley in which the springs are found extends in a cres 
cent shape from Ballston Spa to Quaker Springs, a distance of 
gome seventeen miles. The village of Saratoga Springs ia 
located in the vary center of this valley, and includes all th« 
most valuable and the most varied of these na tural fountains. 

33 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The Source of the Springy. 



Geological and scientific people have spent much time in see\ 
Ing to explain the origin or source of these waters. Rainwater 
Is the usual source of spring-waters. It soaks down through 
porous soils and rocks till it meets clay, or harder rocks, imper- 
vious to fluids. It then, often under great pressure, follows such 
outlets as it may find, and eventually escapes upward to the sur 
face through some fault or rift in the rocks. On its way it 
absorbs saline and other mineral substances and gases, and, 
loaded with them, it reaches the surface, charged in varying 
proportions, and having a fixed character as mineral water. 
These proportions do not change materially ; and from year to 
year the waters flow unchanged, and produce on all who drink 
of them the same general effects. 

A good authority on the geological aspect reports that "the 
northern half of Saratoga County is occupied by elevated ranges 
of Laurentian rocks. The Potsdam, Calciferous, and Trenton 
beds border upon the Laurentian, and appear in parallel bands 
through the central part of the county. In the southern part 
they are covered by slate-rocks. 

" The Laurentian rocks, consisting of highly crystalline gneiss, 
granite, and syenite, are almost impervious to water, while the 
overlying Potsdam is very porous, and capable of holding large 
quantities. The spouting springs and deep wells in the southern 
part of the county — Geyser, Ballston, etc. — are found in the 
Potsdam sandstone, which, being covered in these places by the 
slate-rocks and shales, is of great depth." 

From the surface downwards the strata are as follows : 1. 
Hudson River and Utica shales and slates ; 2. Trenton lime- 
stone ; 3. Calciferous sand-rock ; 4. Potsdam sandstone ; 5. Lau- 
rentian formation of unknown depth. Of these the Laurentian 
alone is impervious to water, and forms the bottom or floor of 
the cistern which feeds the springs. The dip of the strata is to 
the south. In the northern part of the county are elevated 
ranges of Laurentian rock ; thence going southward the sue* 
cessive strata crop out parallel to one another, until the village 
of Saratoga ia reached. Here a fault occurs, the rocks being 

34 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

fissured to a great depth, and the strata to the south of the fissure 
being elevated above the corresponding rocks on the northern 
side of the cleft. The water percolating through the more 
porous strata, and finding its way southward along the floor oi 
Laurentian rock, is checked here, and the surplus forced to the 
surface. The various springs are the outlets of this obstructed 
water, and their peculiarities and differences are doubtless ac- 
quired from the rock and soil through which they reach the 
surface. 

The carbonic acid gas held in the water doubtless aids it in 
finding an outlet to the surface. Being confined under pressure, 
it seeks to escape, and brings the water with it. If shut ofl 
for a moment, the gas will collect in the top of the pipe-wells 
in such quantities, and under such pressure, as to blow a steam- 
whistle. These geological facts have led to the supposition that 
the waters can be obtained by boring through the slates to the 
underlying sandstone, and in the case of some of the springs 
this has proved true, and remarkable supplies have been ob- 
tained. 

The Temperature of the Water 
Does not vary more than a degree or so in the year, and, in the 
case of the Congress and Columbian, is 49° Fahr. Other springs 
are slightly lower or higher, and all are cool and agreeable in 
warm weather. 

The Appearance and Properties of the Water. 
When first dipped from the wells, the water is limpid and 
pearly, and full of bubbles. That from the spouting wells gushes 
forth in creamy whiteness, and resembles soda-water in color and 
action. The gas quickly escapes, and the still water has a won- 
derful purity. When allowed to stand open in a glass or un- 
corked bottle, the transparent water becomes cloudy, a fine white 
skin forms on the surface, and, in a time, a reddish-brown precipi- 
tate is formed. A glass left empty, and not properly wiped dry, 
becomes coated with a white film of salts ; and round the base of 
the spouting wells a white incrustation soon forms on the ground, 
where the spray shivers and spatters on the stones. Left U 

35 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

■tagnate on the ground, the water soon becomes covered with t 
mineral film, that shines with metallic luster and colors, and re- 
Bembling the tints formed by coal-oils on water. The brook and 
marsh near the Star Spring show many samples of this curioui 
natural deposit. In cooking, the spring waters are worse than 
useless, unless made into that great American insanity known 
as " hot cakes." None but the stupid ever eat them. 

The first taste of the waters is not always lovely. After the 
first blush, the water becomes exceedingly enjoyable and one is 
tempted to indulge too freely in the pungent, acidulous and salty 
mixture. The after-effects resemble those of soda-water, and, if a 
large quantity is taken, there follows a sense of fullness, perhaps 
a slight giddiness in the head and a desire for sleep. These 
symptoms are only slight, and are soon removed by the discharges 
that follow ; and afterward there comes increased appetite and a 
feeling of comfortable serenity that is very satisfactory. The 
various waters, when fresh, have a slightly different taste, and 
after due experiment one can readily discriminate between them. 
The iron waters have a slightly inky flavor, and some others leave 
a sweet taste in the mouth. The gas that bubbles from the sur- 
face of the water is fatal to animal life if taken in too large quan- 
tities, and it is said that fish cannot live in the water. A whiff 
of the gas blown in one's face acts as hartshorn, and gives a 
prickling sensation to the nose, that is supposed to be agreeable 
— to those who like it. The gas, though suffocating to the lungs 
when inhaled, is harmless in the water. 

The Commercial Value 
Of the springs is a fair measure of their medicinal value. Prop- 
erty in mineral springs is costly. They are difficult to manage, 
they deinaud many thousands to properly tube them, and a good 
bottling plant involves a very large outlay. The more recent 
wells that have been bored are somewhat less expensive, bat 
even a small tube costs $6 a foot, and, as some of the pipes are 
three hundred feet deep, it is easy to see that mineral springs at 
the best are expensive pieces of property. Most of the springs 
are owned and managed by joint-stock companies, with a capital 
Varying from a hundred thousand dollars to a milli;n or more. 

3G 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Somt springs have proved anything but fountains of financial 
joy to their owners. Thousands of dollars have slipped into the 
salty tubes and never come back again. Other springs waste 
their acidity on the desert sand, and only dogs and cattle drink 
their slime-covered waters. The only profit that results from 
the springs is found in the sale of the water, in bottles and bar- 
rels, in distant places. At Saratoga Springs one may drink all 
one pleases, and carry it away by the pailful for the asking, or an 
optional fee to the dipper-boy. The outlook for the spring- 
water business is said to be good in spite of the disasters that 
have overtaken some of the spring companies. The demand for 
pure natura mineral waters is steadily increasing. People are 
beginning to know the difference between the villainous com- 
pounds mixed in city cellars with marble dust, gas, and sea- 
water salts, and the pure, limpid, and pearly waters that here 
spring up to the sunlight from Nature's great laboratory. There 
is a sort of free fight going on between the chemical waters and 
the spring waters, and sensible people are rapidly learning 
which side to take, and are becoming cautious which they drink. 
There is no need to be deceived, even in distant cities, as the pro- 
tected trade-marks on the corks of all the bottles show the real 
spring- waters of whatever kind, and this, with the marks on the 
boxes and bottles, ought to make one safe in buying a half- 
dozen, even if one lives in England, Australia or California. 
Another curious feature in this connection is the fact that no 
mixture, however skillfully put together, can exactly imitate the 
natural waters, nor can any mineral water from the chemists 
ever produce so good results as the same quantity of true spring- 
water. This is one reason why people flock to Saratoga in such 
vast crowds. They wish to select for themselves, and to use 
their own particular goblets, and to know certainly whereof 
they drink. 

Concerning the chemical and medical properties of the Sara- 
toga waters, a trustworthy authority may be quoted : " The 
principal constituents which give the special character to the 
cathartic springs are bicarbonates of magnesia and soda, and 
chloride of sodium ; the tonic waters, bicarbonate of iron ; the 
alterative wat9rs, iodide of sodium, chloride of potassium and 

37, 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

•odiurn, etc. ; the diuretic waters, bicarbonate of litliia and pm 
feoxide of hydrogen. 

"CARBONIC ACID, 

"The spirit of the springs, not only contributes to the solubility 
of the salts contained in the waters, but also renders them more 
palatable and more agreeable to the stomach. It is the perfect 
solution of the ingredients which renders the water valuable. 
When once the gas has been driven off, and the water evaporated, 
ten times the quantity of rain water will not re-dissolve the 
salts. The strongest chalybeates of Europe are the least used, 
because they lack gas, and are hence heavy and unpalatable 
The strongest known in the whole world, the Acqua Ferrara de 
Rio, in the Island of Elba, is entirely useless for medicinal pur- 
poses. The mineral waters of Saratoga contain more gas ihan 
any of the spas of Germany. 

" Carbonic acid, being united with the vegetable alkali, forms 
our common saleratus ; hence the reason why our cooks furnish 
a well-raised cake, merely by mixing flour with a solution of pot- 
ash and sour milk. Here the acid of the milk, from a greater 
' attraction,' joins itself to the alkali, liberating the carbonic acid 
gas, which, being driven off by the heat, puffs up every particle 
of dough. In the same way foaming lemonade, more delicious 
than soda, is made by adding lemon juice to the mineral waters 
of Saratoga. 

" In mineral waters, carbonic acid is found in three different 
states. It is either 'bound' to certain bases, with which it 
forms carbonates — from these the gas does not escape when it 
is heated— ox it is ' half-bound ' or ' fixed,' forming sesquicar- 
bonates or bicarbonates, from which compounds part of the gas 
Is disengaged as soon as the water comes in contact with the air, 
and still more rapidly when it is heated ; so that certain salts, 
ouly soluble as bicarbonates, and insoluble as carbonates, are pre- 
cipitated as soon as the surplus atoms of carbonic acid are gone 
Finally, it is contained in the waters * free,' as gas, which escapet 
at the ordinary temperature, as soon as the water rises out of the 
earth, and the pressure under which it was held in the interioi 
ceases. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

* 4 Before a storm, it has been noticed that more gas is evolved 
because the density of the air affects the atmospheric pressure 

" The gas seems only to travel through some of the springs, 
while others are very firmly impregnated with it. 

" Bicarbonate of magnesia is a mild laxative and a gooc 
palliative in acid or sour stomach, heart-burn, and sick headache, 
especially if the person is constipated. 

" Bicarbonate of soda first diminishes the secretions, and 
subsequently increases them, the urine being most susceptible to 
its influence. It increases the alkalinity of the blood and of thp 
secretion, and some physiologists tell us that it reduces the quan 
tity of fibrin in the blood. 

"Carbonate of iron increases the number of red corpuscles 
in the blood, stimulates the appetite, and excites the heart's 
action. It has a tendency to constipate. 

" Chloride of sodium forms part of every tissue of the bodj 
except, perhaps* the enamel of the teeth. It increases the solu 
bility of the albumen of the blood, and prevents a too rapid de 
struction of the red corpuscles. It increases the flow of the gas 
trie juice and bile, and promotes the interchange of the fluids in 
the body, which physiologists call osmosis. It augments the 
quantity of urine secreted. It is also known to exercise a marked 
influence on the growth of the hair. When an animal does not 
receive a proper quantity of salt, the hair becomes rough and 
wiry. In too large quantities it causes irritation of the stomach 
and intestines. 

" Chloride of potassium is common to the blood and to cer- 
tain tissues, as the muscles and the red discs, while the chloride 
of sodium exists in the serum. Congress water contains eight 
grains of chloride of potassium, a similar proportion to that found 
in the blood. Its medicinal action is analogous to that of chlo 
ride of sodium. 

" The other important ingredients are bicarbonate of lit hia, 
the iodides and bromides, the bicarbonate of lime, etc. The 
great problem among physicians is how to cause their medicines 
to be absorbed when taken into the system. Many of the in- 
^redients of mineral springs would be almost inert in a state oi 
powder, but when held in solution in mineral water are admitted 

39 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

to the inner coats of all the blood-vessels, and are powerfu 
alteratives of the entire system, as the experiments of Dr. Beau 
mont have clearly shown. 

" There are two methods of testing an agent that is to be in - 
troduced into the materia medica, viz. : By careful watching and 
recording the therapeutical effects of the article on individuals, 
and by chemical analysis. The latter criterion is probably a 
more fallacious guide than is generally supposed. How often 
has the practitioner been surprised at the augmented 01 
diminished effect of some off-hand combination, that would be 
wholly unlooked for by estimating the separate agency of each 
article. So of mineral waters. Chemical analysis cannot decide 
the exact medicinal effects of a new spring independently of a 
faithful observation of its operations ; for many medicines, such 
as oxide of iron, carbonate of iron, phosphorus, etc., pass through 
the alimentary passages with very little absorption. 

"THE ANALYSES 

' Which we present herewith have been made* by Professor C. 
F. Chandler, Ph. D., of the Columbia School of Mines. 

" The analyses which Dr. Chandler has furnished have been 
prepared with great labor, care, and expense, and are the only 
ones which represent the waters as they are to-day. 

" The minerals are contained in the spas as salts. Chemical 
analysis, however, merely shows the elements, the acids, and 
the bases which are present in the water, but not the mode of 
their combination. It has, therefore, often happened that if 
several chemists have analyzed the same spas, and found the 
same ingredients, the tabular view of the contents given by them 
have nevertheless been different, as they adopted different mo4e# 
of combination. 

40 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 




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SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED 



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SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The Medicinal Action 



Of mineral waters differs in almost every respect from that Oj 
cathartics and diuretics, or eliminators in the materia medica. 
Medicines frequently act by counter-irritation, curing one organ 
by exciting and irritating another. Ordinary cathartics, diuretics, 
and diaphoretics are composed of substances foreign to the sys- 
tem, and they act partly by their poisonous effects. The most 
important ingredients of the Saratoga waters are natural to the 
body, and are also powerful oxydizers of the disintegrated tissues' 
carrying out of the body the waste matter. Mineral waters are 
similar to tht blood, minus its organic constituents, and are true 
restorative medicines, as well as powerful modifiers of the tissues 
themselves ; and these properties, and their gentle mode of ac- 
tion, constitute no small degree of their extraordinary merit. 

" Saratoga water is a cholagogue in its properties — that is, it 
stimulates the action of the liver, and promotes the excretion of 
bile. Certain matters are secreted by that organ, which, if al- 
lowed to remain in the system, produce such diseases as jaun- 
dice. A great number of intestinal diseases and blood disorders 
are associated with derangements of the functions of the liver. 

" The waters are not only laxative or aperient, but are also 
diuretic, antacid, deobstruent, alterative, and tonic. 

" They increase the force of the heart and arteries, promote di- 
gestion, favor the action of the nutrient vessels, increase the 
peristaltic movement of the bowels, cleanse the system through 
the granular organs, and impart strength and vigor." 

The Diseases Affected by the Waters 

Are numerous. To give a list in detail would be useless and 
confusing, and perhaps harmful. There is but one course to 
pursue in drinking the spring waters for the health's sake. 
Consult a resident physician, let him make a diagnosis of your 
case, and, under his advice, select the particular spring of most 
value to you, and govern yourself, in all tilings, by his experienct 
and acquaintance with the waters. The medical staff of Saratoga 
Springs is excellent, and one may rely on thoir abilitv to assist 

43 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

and direct. A great many people make the mistake, upon their 
first visit to Saratoga Springs, of drinking promiscuously at a 
number of springs, and in such large quantities as to prove actually 
injurious rather than beneficial. To receive benefit from a use of 
of these waters, they must be used discreetly and judiciously> 
and not to excess. Above all, do not be led away by the gratuitous 
advice of persons who have been benefitted by these waters, but 
who are not possessed of sufficient medical knowlege to give a 
reason for their belief in any particular spring. 

Concerning the directions for their use, much the same thing 
may be said. As well try to give advice in making prescriptions 
for the general public. Each user of these healing waters must 
in a measure, be a law unto himself. To drink any and all of 
the waters would be simply unreasonable. Seek proper advice, 
and then follow it, and be not led aside by the enthusiasm of 
some invalid who, having been restored to health by some par- 
ticular spring, thinks it a cure for all diseases, whether they are 
allied to his special case or not. To persons in perfectly good 
health the waters do no particular harm, even if indulged in 
freely. At the same time, there is reason in all things, and if 
one is really unwell, there is but one thing to do— consult a 
medical man. 

The late Dr. Steel wrote in 1837 : " The waters are so generally 
used, and their effects so seldom injurious, particularly to 
persons in health, that almost every one who has ever drank 
of them assumes the prerogative of directing their use to others. 
Were these directions always the result of careful experience 
and observation they would be less objectionable ; but there are 
numerous persons who flock about the springs without any 
positive knowledge of the composition and effect of the waters, 
who contrive to dispose of their directions, many times to the 
detriment of those who desire to be benefited, but who are thua 
disappointed in the use of the water." 

In speaking of springs in detail, they will be taken in alpha 
betical order, as being the most convenient. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



Congress Spring. 

This spring is located in Congress Spring Park, opposite tht 
southern end of Congress Hall. There is an artistic and very 
beautiful pavilion built over it to protect visitors from sun and 
rain. The principal entrance to the spring-house is at the grand 
entrance to the Park, near Broadway. On entering the Park, 
turn to the left, pass along the arbor-like colonnade to the pa- 
vilion about the spring, where seats are provided, and the spring 
water, drawn by a novel process, is served upon small tables by 
the attendants. Visitors will find this method of obtaining the 
waters far more agreeable than the old way followed at the other 
springs, as they can partake leisurely while seated, without being 
jostled by the crowd, and enjoy the beautiful view of the Park 
and the delightful music by the Park Band. By descending a 
few steps to the east, along the colonnade to the cafe, hot coffee 
and other refreshments may be obtained at moderate prices. 
Admission to the Park is regulated by tickets, for which a merely 
nominal charge is made ; but access to the spring can be obtained 
on Congress Street, without entering the Park, and the waters 
are served free of charge. 

Congress Spring is more generally known and used than any of 
the other Saratoga springs, and has probably effected more cuies 
of the diseases for which its waters are a specific, than any other 
mineral spring in America. It was discovered in 1792. The 
waters were first bottled for exportation in 1823, by Dr. John 
Clarke, of New York, who purchased the spring from the Living- 
ston family, who held it under an ancient grant. The property 
was purchased of Dr. Clarke's executors in 18C5, by the "Con- 
gress and Empire Spring Company," the present proprietors. 

The medicinal effects of Congress water have been tested fox 
nearly a century, and its use is prescribed by physicians, with the 
utmost confidence, after long knowledge of its great efficacy, and 
the entire comfort and safety with which it may be used. To pro- 
fessional men and others whose occupations are sedentary, and to 
all sufferers from the various forms of bilious disorders, it is in- 
raluable. It contains of the laxative salts (chloride of sodium 
Mid bicarbonate of magnesia) enough to render its effects certain 

45 




CONGRESS SPRING PAVILION. 

ERECTED, 1876. 



•AJtATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

without the addition or use of cathartic drugs ; and it produces fret 
and copious evacuations without in any manner debilitating th« 
alimentary canal or impairing the digestive powers of the stom- 
ach. At the same time it does not contain an excess of those 
salts, the presence of which in the cruder mineral waters, nativ« 
and foreign, often renders them drastic and irritating, producing 
very serious disorders. 

In connection with a recent analysis of Congress Spring, Prof. 
C. F. Chandler remarks, that "the superior excellence of this 
water is due to the fact that it contains, in the most desirable 
proportions, those substances which produce its agreeable flavor 
and satisfactory medicinal effects — neither holding them in excess 
nor lacking any constituent to be desired in this class of waters. 
As a cathartic water, its almost entire freedom from iron should 
recommend it above all others, many of which contain so much 
of this ingredient as to seriously impair their usefulness." Prof. 
Chandler also remarks, that a comparison of his analysis with thai 
by Dr. John H. Steel, in 1832, proves that the Congress water 
■till retains its original strength, and all the virtues which estab- 
lished its well-merited reputation. 

ANALYSIS OP CONGRESS SPRING WATER, 
BY PROP. C. P. CHANDLER. 

One United States gallon of 231 cubic inches contains : 
Chloride of Sodium. 400.444 grains. Bromide of Sodium 8.569 grains. 



Chloride of Potassium . . . 8.049 
Bicarbonate of Magnesia. 121.757 
Bicarbonate of Lime. . . .143.399 
Bicarbonate of Lithia . . . 4.761 

Bicarbonate of Soda 10.775 

Bicarbonate of Baryta ... 0.928 
Bicarbonate of Iron 0.340 



Iodide of Sodium 0.138 *• 

Sulphate of Potassa 0.889 «• 

Phosphate of Soda 0. 016 •* 

Silica 0.840 " 

Fluoride of Calcium, \ 

Biborate of Soda, I each a trace. 

Alumina, \ 



Bicarbonate of Strontia, a trace. Total 70C.895 grains 

Carbonic Acid Gas 392.289 cubic inchea, 

It should be remembered that this water is never sold in bar- 
rels. Genuine Congress water is sold only in bottles. In thii 
form it is sent to almost every part of the world, and its name if 

% household word. 

46 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Columbian Spring. 

This spring is located in Congress Spring Park, just vest of the 
park entrance and a little nearer Broadway. It is covered by the 
beautiful and artistic pavilion, and is approached through the 
park entrance to the right, or down a few steps from Broadway 
opposite Columbian Hotel. The spring is owned by the Congres* 
and Empire Spring Company. It is a fine chalybeate mineral 
water, and possesses singularly active properties in certain diseases. 

It is said to be especially valuable in liver complaints, dyspepsia, 
erysipelas, and all cutaneous disorders. As a tonic water for fre- 
quent use, no spring in Saratoga is so popular as the Columbian. 

The water is recommended to be drank in small quantities fre- 
quently during the day, generally preceded by the use of the 
cathartic waters taken before breakfast. Only from one -half to 
one glass should be taken at a time. When taken in large quan- 
tities, or before breakfast, a peculiar headache is experienced. 

The proper use of this water will strengthen the tone of the 
^tomach, and tend to increase the red particles of the blood 
which, according to Liebeg, perform an important part in respira- 
tion. Though containing but 5.58 grains of iron in each gallon, 
this water has a perceptible iron taste in every drop. Is it much 
to be wondered at, then, that a mineral which has so great a 
power of affecting the palate should possess equally potent influ- 
ence upon the whole system? The happy medicinal effects of 
these iron waters seem to consist, to some extent, in the minute 
division of the mineral properties, so that they are readily taken 
into the system. The water is exported largely, and descriptive 
pamphlets, containing full directions for drinking the water, may 
be obtained at the Company's office opposite Congress Spring. 

ANALYSIS OF COLUMBIAN WATERS, BY PROF. E. EMMONS. 

Specific gravity 1007.3. Solid and gaseous contents as follows : 

Chloride of Sodium 267.00 grains. 

Bicarbonate of Soda 15. 40 " 

Bicaroonate of Magnesia. 46.71 *• 

Hydriodate of Soda 2.06 M 

Solid contents in a gallon 407.30 

Carbon!; Acid Gas 272.06 inches. 

Atanofphcric Air 4.50 *» 



Carbonate of Lime 68.00 grain* 

Carbonate of Iron 6.68 " 

Silex 2.05 « 

Hy'o-Bro'ate of Potash scarcely a trace. 



278.18 inch**, 

47 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Empire Spring. 

This spring, one of the best in Saratoga, is located in the nortk 
part of the shallow valley that runs through the village. To reach 
it from Congress Hall, follow Broadway north to the first street 
north of Town Hall ; then to the right, tnen left, through Front 
Street, down the hill, to the large bottling-house at the foot Df 
the hill. This spring is in a pavilion before the building. For 
full information concerning this spring, call at the office of the 
Congress and Empire Spring Company, near Congress Hall. 

Although the existence of mineral water in this locality wat 
known for a long time, it was not until 1846 that any one thought 
it worth the necessary expense of excavation and tubing. The 
rock was struck twelve feet below the surface of the earth, and so 
copious was the flow of water that the tubing proved to be a work 
of unusual difficulty. When once accomplished, the water flowed 
in great abundance and purity. It soon attracted the attention of 
medical men, and was found to possess curative properties which 
rendered it available in diseases which had not before been affected 
by Saratoga waters. It has proved itself adapted to a wide range 
of cases, especially of a chronic nature, and its peculiar value is 
recognized by eminent medical men. Its general properties 
closely resemble the Congress, although from the presence of a 
larger quantity of magnesia in the Congress water, the operation 
of the latter is perhaps somewhat more pungent. 

The Empire Spring water is a great favorite with many people, 
being preferred for its mild but positive medicinal effects. 

ANALYSIS OF EMPIRE SPRING WATER, 
BY PROP. C. P. CHANDLER. 

One United States gallon of 231 cubic inches contains : 



Chloride of Sodium 500.630 grains. 

Chloride of Potassium . . 4.292 " 

E.ca/rbonate of Magnesia. 42.953 " , 

Bicarbonate of Lime. .. . 109.656 *' 

Bicarbonate of Lithia. . 8.080 " 

Bicarbonate of Soda .... 9.022 " 

Bicarbonate of Baryta.. 0.075 " 

Bicarbonate of Iron .793 " 

Bioarbonate of Strontia, a trace. 



Bromide of Sodium 3.266 grain* 

Iodide of Sodium. 0.006 " 

Sulphate of Potassa.... 2.769 " 

Phosphate of Soda 0.023 " 

Silica 1.145 " 

Alumina 0.418 u 

Fluoride of Calcium, ) 

Biborate of Soda, r each a trrno* 

Organic Matter, J 



Total 680.436 grain*. 

Oarbonic Acid S44.6V9 cubie to 

48. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Excelsior Spring, 
la found in a beautiful valley, amid picturesque scenery, about % 
mile east of the town hall, and near the centre of Excelsior Park. 
The principal park entrance is on Lake Avenue, half a mile from 
Circular street, or we may approach it by Spring Avenue, which 
will lead us past most of the principal springs, and the Lough 
berry Water Works with its famous Holly Machinery, by which 
the village is supplied with an abundance of the purest water 
from the Excelsior Lake. Leaving the Water Works, we see Just 
before us, as the avenue bends towards the Excelsior Spring, the 
fine summer hotel known as the Mansion House. Surrounded 
by its grand old trees and beautiful lawn, it offers an inviting re- 
treat from the heat and dust of our crowded cities. 

The spring is covered by a very tasteful pavilion, which will be 
noticed just east of the little stream, and in front of the large 
bottling house beside the grove. The Union Spring is a little 
northwest of the Excelsior, and but a few steps removed. This 
valley, in which these two springs are situated, was formerly 
known as the "Valley of the Ten Springs," but the present 
owners, after grading and greatly beautifying the grounds, changed 
its name in honor of the spring to Excelsior Park. 

The Excelsior Spring has been appreciated for its valuable 
qualities by some of the oldest visitors of Saratoga for at least 
half a century. Many noted cures, among the older residents of 
the town, were effected by the use of this water before it wai 
introduced to the general public. The water, however, was not 
much known to the public until 1859, when Mr. H. H. Lawrence, 
the former owner, and grandfather of the present proprie- 
tor, retubed the Spring in the most thorough manner — the tubing 
extending to a depth of fifty-six feet, eleven of which are in the 
•olid rock. By this improvement the water flows with all its 
properties undeteriorated, retaining from source to outlet its 
anginal purity and strength. For several years the Excelsior 
Spring water has steadily increased in public favor, until now its 
•ale has become very large, and it is to be found on draught, 
•r in bottles, in nearly all the principal cities and towns oi 
the United States. We must not fail to notice the perfect 

* 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



airf very ingenious method, invented by the proprietors of this 
spring, for bottling and barreling the water. In the large and 
^veil-lighted cellar of the bottling house is a circular brick vault 
in whose depths the process of filling is performed. A block-tin 
tuoe conveys the water directly from the spring to this vault, at 
a depth of twelve feet from the surface of the ground. By hy- 
drostatic pressure the water is forced from the main tubing of the 
spring through the smaller tube to the brick vault into air- 
tight Barrels, or reservoirs, lined with pure block-tin. These 
reservoirs contain two tubes, one of which extends from the top 
io the Dottom of the barrel, the other being shorter. When 
these reservoirs are connected with the tube leading from the 




TZOPJTL — .. 

spring, the water is forced by hydrostatic pressure through the 
long tube into the barrel, and the air is driven out through the 
shorter tube, while the gas of the water is not allowed to escape. 
To draw the water from the reservoirs, it is only necessary to 
attach the draught tube to the long tube of the barrel, and con- 
nect the shorter one with an air pump, when the pressure of the 
air will force out the water, without its being recharged with 
gas — pure, sparkling, and as delicious as though it were taken 

50 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



IN BOTTLES. 



directly from the spring. The value of the waters is universally 
conceded, and they have ON DRAUGHT, 

already attained a world- 
wide popularity. The fa- 
miliar trade-mark of the 
Excelsior water may be 
seen in nearly all the cities 
and large villages of Am- 
erica. The water of this 
spring is a pleasant cathar- 
tic, and has also alterative 
and tonic properties. It 
Bottle Make, is also delicious as a bev- 
erage. As a cathartic, two or three glasses before breakfast will 
be a sufficient dose, while, as an alterative or diuretic, small 
draughts throughout the day will be found beneficial. 





Trade Mare. 




ANALYSIS OF THE "EXCELSIOR" SPRING WATER. 
As analyzed by the late R. L. Allen, M.D., of Saratoga Springs. 

Sulphate of Soda 1.821 grains. 



Silicate of Soda 4.000 

Iodide of Soda 4.235 

Bromide of Potassa a trace. 

Sulphate of Strontia a trace. 



Chloride of Sodium 370. 042 grains. 

Carbonate of Lime 77.000 

Carbonate of Magnesia... 3-2.833 " 

Carbonate of Soda 15.000 " 

Silicate of Potassa 7.000 '• 

Carbonate of Iron 3.215 " 

Solid contents in a gallon 514- 1 L ,j J iMJ grain 

Carbonic Acid (cubic inches)"250 

Atmosphere 3 

Gaseous Contents 253 cubic in. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Union Spring, 

Near the centre of Excelsior Park, is about ten rods northwest of 
Excelsior Spring. It was originally known as the ' Jackson " 
■pring, and is described under that name by Dr. John H. Steele^ 
in his work on the Mineral Waters of Saratoga and Ballston, pub- 
lished by Dr. Steele at Albany in 1819. The water was, how 
ever, but imperfectly secured until the present proprietors had 
the spring retubed in 1868. The water of the Union Spring acts 
as a mild cathartic when taken before breakfast. Drank at othei 
times during the day it is a very agreeable and healthful beverage. 
Prof. C. F. Chandler, the distinguished chemist, says: " Thii 
water is of excellent strength. It is specially noticeable that the 
ratio of magnesia to lime is unusually large, which is a decided 
advantage. The water is also remarkably free from iron, a fact 
which is a great recommendation." The water is put up in bot- 
tles for shipping to any part of the world. It is also sold in 
Lawrence's Patent Reservoirs (barrels lined with pure block tin), 
containing about thirty gallons each. These reservoirs are very 
strong and perfectly gas tight, and retain the water with all its 
natural Carbonic Acid Gas. From these reservoirs the water can 
be forced out, under atmospheric pressure, in its natural con- 
dition, sparkling with Carbonic Acid Gas as it flows from the spring 
at Saratoga, in the same manner in which the Excelsior Water on 
draught is so very widely and favorably known. 

ANALYSIS OP THE UNION SPRING WATER, 
BY PROP. C. P. CHANDLER. 

Laboratory of the School of Mines, Columbia Coixkqk, I 
New York, March 26, 1873. f 
The sample of Mineral Water taken from the Union Spbinq, Saratoga, contain! 
In one U. S. Gallon of 231 cnbio inches : 



Chloride of Sodium 458. 299 grains 

Chloride of Potassium . . . 8.733 

Bromide of Sodium. 1.307 

Iodide of Sodium 0.039 

Fluoride of Calcium trace. 

Bicarbonate of Lithia. . . . 2.605 

Bicarbonate of Soda 17.010 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia. 109.685 

Bicarbonate of Lime 96.703 

Bicarbonate of Strontia.. trace. 



Bicarbonate of Baryta. . . 1 703 grains. 

Bicarbonate of Iron 269 " 

Sulphate of Potassa. ... . 1818 M 

Phosphate of Soda C.026 " 

Biborate of Soda trace. 

Alumina 0.324 u 

Silica 2.863 " 

Organic Matter trace. 



Total Solid Contents. .701.174 grab* 
Carbonic Acid Gas in one gni., 384.969 cubic inch**, Ttmp., 48 cUg. V. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Facilities for Reaching Excelsior Park. 

Tbe drives to the Excelsior Spring and Park, by way of Lake 
und Spring Avenues, have already been described, but every 
visitor should know that there are other attractive ways of reach- 
ing this most beautiful suburb of Saratoga. 

First, we must mention the advantages afforded the public by 
the Saratoga Lake Railway and its Excelsior Spring Station, by 
which the sojourner at Saratoga, is enabled to go and return in a 
brief space of time, during any portion of the day. Then pedes- 
trians, and lovers of the picturesque, will find a Woodland 
Walk at the termination of York Avenue, by following which in 
an easterly direction for about half -a-mile, among tall pines and 
other forest trees, they will reach the Excelsior Spring, in the 
central portion of the Park. Those wishing to return by a differ- 
ent route, or fatigued by their ramble, may avail themselves of 
the railroad to the village, or take the trip to Saratoga Lake. 
Besides this favorite woodland path to Excelsior Spring, Mr. 
Lawrence has opened a Bridle Path and Carriage Drive, enter- 
ing the woods at the intersection of East and York Avenues. 
The bridle path skirts the brow of the hill, affording occasional 
glimpses, through a frame work of leaves, of the green meadows 
to the north, and the silvery surface of Loughberry Lake. Both 
the bridle path and the carriage drive bring out on Excelsior 
Spring Avenue, on the summit of the high hill, south of the 
Excelsior Spring. Here we have an extensive view to the 
east of the G-reen Mountains of Vermont, and the nearer hills of 
Washington County, N. Y. A little further on, as the carriage 
road reaches the brow of the hill, the lovely valley stretches bo- 
fore us. If the rich glow of a summer sunset is still resting upon 
the distant hills, we shall be apt to feel that we have at last found 
the " Happy Valley." Below us lies the lovely vale once known 
as the ''Valley of the Ten Springs," with its surrounding hill- 
sides adorned by pretty cottages. A little further to the north 
we behold the hills of the Loughberry Lake, and still further 
beyond the granite elevations known as the Palmerstown and 
Kayaderosseras mountains, spurs of the great Adirondacks, 
52a 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 




ayser or "Spouting Spring" 

Is a most wonderful fountain of mineral 
water, discovered in 1870, and situated about 
one mile and a quarter southwest of the 
village of Saratoga Springs, in the midst of 
the beautiful region of landscape scenery 
now known as "Geyser Lake and Park." 
To reach it from Saratoga follow Broadway 
south to Ballston Avenue, which branches 
off from Broadway in the south part of the 
village to the right, towards the south- 
west, and follow this avenue until it crosses the Rens. and Sar. 
R. R. , when the large brick bottling house with the world-wide 
inscription of " Geyser Spring" will be distinctly seen across the 
lake to the left. Follow the carriage road across the causeway 
turning to the left, and you will soon find yourself at the entrance 
of the spring and bottling house, and in the midst of the most in- 
teresting spring region of Saratoga. Visitors are most cordially 
welcomed to the spring and grounds by the proprietors at all reason- 
able hours of the day, and perfect freedom is accorded to all visitors 
to drink the waters, inspect the work of bottling, and to stroll 
through the beautiful grounds surrounding the springs. As you 
enter the spring-house, directly in front of you, in the centre of 
the building, is this marvelous spouting spring, sending forth a 
powerful stream of water to the very top of the building, which 
in descending to its surrounding basin e prays into a thousand 
crystal streams, forming a beautiful fountain ever flowing, and 
charming to behold. 

In the center of the room is the artistical basin, about six feet 
■quare, and from the bottom rises an iron pipe. From this leaps, 
in fantastic dance, the creamy water of the spring. To allow it 
full play, there is an opening in the ceiling, and here it rises and 
falls, day and night, continually. At one side, a faucet, with a 
nose like a soda fountain, enables one to draw a glass. The watel 
boils and bubbles out, mingled with bubbles of gas precisely like 
oream soda, and all who care may have a free drink. When the 
bubbles have escaped, the water has a wonderful pearly purity 
that tempts one to drink bountifully. A glass globe 0:1 the well 

68 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

eurb has a stream of water flowing through it and escaping at th* 
top. This enables us to see the thick stream of bubbling gas ai 
it rises through the water and makes an extremely pretty display. 
A large business is here carried on in bottling this valuable and 
delicious water, and visitors are shown all the processes in detail 
The orifice bored in the rock is five and a half inches in diame- 
ter, and 132 feet deep. The rock formation consists of a strata 
of slate eighty feet thick, beneath which lies the strata of birds-eye 
limestone in which the mineral vein was struck. The orifice ,s 
tubed with a block-tin pipe, encased with iron, to the depth of 
eighty-five feet, the object being to bring the water through the 
soft slate formation, as the immanse pressure and force of the 
gas would cut the slate, thereby causing impurities in the water. 
Recently the present proprietors became convinced that a large 
percentage of the Carbonic Acid G-as shown by the phenomenon 
of spouting, was not present in the bott.ed water. They recently 
re-tubed tho spring and put in the most approved Bottling Table. 
The result is that for the first time in the history of the Spring 
all the Natural Carbonic Acid Gas is retained to the bottled water, 
thereby adding much to its already high medicinal qualities, and 
making it an Excellent Table Water, the water now being 
highly effervescent and the best mineral water known. 

Professor C. F. Chandler, Ph. D., of Columbia College School 
of Mines, visited this spring a few weeks after its discovery, and 
the following analysis, made from water collected by him at that 
time, (femonstrates the great value of the Geyser as a medicinal 
spring : 

ANALYSIS OF ONE U. S. GALLON. 



Chloride of Sodium 562.080 grains 

Chloride of Potassium. . . 24.634 " 

Bromide of Sodium 2.212 " 

Iodide of Sodium 0.248 " 

Fluoride of Calcium a trace. 

Bicarbonate of Lithia. . . 9.004 M 

Bicarbonate of Soda 71.232 M 

Bicaroonate of Hagnesia.149.343 " 
BioMDonate of Lime .... 168.392 «' 



Bicarbonate of Strontia. 0.435 grain* 

Bicarbonate of Baryta. . . 2.014 ** 

Bicarbonate of Iron 0. 979 •• 

Sulphate of Potassa 0.318 I4 

Phosphate of Soda trace. 

Biborate of Soda trace. 

Alumina. trace. 

Silica. 0.665 « 

Organic matter trace. 



Total Bolid contents. 991.646 



Carbonic Acid Gas in one TJ, 8 Gal ..454.082 cubic la 

Denirity 1.011 

Temperature 46° Fahr. 

54 



■ARJLTOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

It may be noticed that the water is charged with medicinal 
and gaseous properties to a wonderful degree, its total solid con- 
tents being 991.546 grains. The amount of gas is excessive, and 
it is this that enables the water to hold in solution so great a 
proportion of minerals, and gives to it remarkable preservative 
properties when bottled, as well as imparts that mysterious powex 
which forces the water from its Bilent cavern in the earth into the 
beautiful fountain of the spring. Its properties are permanent in 
any climate, and for an indefinite time. So long as kept corked, 
and the bottle laid on the side, it retains its value unimpaired. 

As a medicinal agency its effects are marvelous. Testimonial! 
from all quarters are received, bearing witness to its wonderful 
cures of diseases ; especially in Cutaneous Diseases, or any of tht 
various phases of Scrofula. It is used with telling effect in Kid- 
ney Disease, Liver Complaint, Dyspepsia, Biliousness, Rheumatism, 
Acidity of Stomach, etc. It is a delightful beverage, and when 
taken as a cathartic leaves none of those unpleasant effects ob- 
servable in the use of many other of the Saratoga waters. 

As an apeHent or cathartic it should be used in the early morn- 
ing ; and, if in bottles, it should stand in the room so as not to 
be too cool. To give it more ready effect, raise the water to 
about blood-heat, or 90° Fahr. A pint bottle, or about two 
glasses, will usually be found sufficiently prompt and effective. 

As a Tonic, the water should be drank cool and in small quan- 
tities. When taken with meals or at lunch, as an ordinary bev- 
erage, the system will retain the minerals with strengthening and 
stimulating effect. After wines or hearty eating, the water is a 
gure corrective, restoring the stomach to its natural condition^ 
while relieving the system of uncongenial and injurious substances. 
It cures Biliousness, corrects acidity of stomach, relieves nerv 
ous or feverish irritation and headache, and a restless person may 
be induced to sleep by taking a glass of Geyser on retiring at 
night. Geyser Water also operatas with excellent effect upon the 
Kidneys. The lithia found in this water is a specific for gravel 
or stone, and is effectual in dissolving the chalk or limestone and 
urate deposits in Rheumatism or Gout. Geyser Water is put up 
in pint and quart bottles, and in tin-lined barrels of thirty galloni 
each, ami it may be found at any leading druggist's on the con 

55 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED, 

tinent. In bottles, it is packed in cases of four dozen pints or 
two dozen quarts. 

The spring property is managed by a company, and for the 
purposes of business the proprietors have adopted the name 
t; Geyser Spring Co." All orders should be addressed to 
Geyser Spring Co., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. The officers of 
ihj company are Allen W. Evarts, President; GeOrge E. Settle, 
Treasurer; Frank Jones, Secretary. The business of the Geyser 
Spring has increased rapidly since its discovery in 1870, and its 
waters are now sold everywhere. 

By passing through the door, at the east end of the bottling 
house, we enter upon a piazza which overlooks the stream that 
dashes by the spring-house. Under the overhanging awning we 
may enjoy a very charming prospect. 

Geyser Park 
Embraces a tract of about 40 acres surrounding the Geyser 
Spring, and is open to visitors who are invited, by numerous rustio 
chairs and settees, to enjoy the natural beauties of this charming 
vicinity. Leaving the spring-house by the rear door, we enter 
upon the ramble and follow the shady path down into the delL 
From the rustic bridge is a pretty view of the waterfall near the 
spring-house, and in the vicinity are several springs of varied min- 
eral properties, more or less undeveloped, but indicating the great 
richness of this region in mineral waters. Returning to the 
spring-house, we may pass up the hill towards the west, and ob- 
tain a delightful view of the lake and park. From the summit of 
the slope to the westward the beautiful surroundings of this cele- 
brated locality are brought into view. Standing on the elevation, 
with our face to the east, a charming prospect is spread before us. 
The large, beautiful green expanse, studded here and there with 
trees and cottages, and terminating with the Green Mountain 
range in the distant east, and the Greenfield Mountains in the 
west ; the silvery water expanding from small proportions into 
the dimensions of a beautiful lake, fringed with graceful foliage 
wad shaded lawns ; the limpid stream plunging over the fall and 
dashing down into the shaded glen ; the strong-arched causeway, 
and the spouting springs shooting their pearly-white waters into 

graceful fountains, all unite to form a charming landscape. 

56 



SABATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Hamilton Spring. 

This spring is situated about thirty rods north of the Congress 
immediately in the rear of Congress Hall. It was discovered by 
Mr. Gideon Putnam, one of the early settlers of the place, not 
long after the discovery of the Congress Spring, and named after 
the late General Hamilton. The water, when first taken from 
the spring, is remarkably clear and sparkling. It is saline and 
acidulous to the taste, and when taken to the quantity of five or 
six half pints, is usually both cathartic and diuretic. 

This water ranks first among the springs as a diuretic, and it 
has long been celebrated for its good effects in gravelly and cal- 
culous affections. In scrofula and indeed all other indolent 
swellings of the glands, the water of this spring, together with 
that of the Columbian, will unquestionably take the preference. 

It is owing to the iodine which these waters contain that they 
have become so famous in the cure of strumous affections. 

The following ingredients were obtained from one gallon, by 

an analysis by Dr. John H. Steele in 1831, viz. : 

Chloride of Sodium 297.3 g 

Carbonate of Lime 92.4 

Carbonate of iron 5.39 

Hydriodate of Soda 8. 

Bicarbonate of Soda 27.036 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia. . . 36.2 

Address orders for water to C. L. Wiggins, Saratoga Springs,N. Y. 
The Hathorn Spring 
fs on Spring Street, directly opposite the north wing of Congress 
Hall. It was discovered in 1869 by some workmen employed in 
placing the foundation of the brick block which contains the 
beautiful ball-room of Congress Hall. It is named in honor of 
the Hon. H. H. Hathorn, who first developed the spring, and 
Duilt the famous Congress Hall Hotel. The spring was very se- 
curely tubed in 1872, at the large expense of $15,000. The 
Hathorn is one of the most valuable springs in Saratoga. Great 
quantities of water are bottled and sold in the leading towns and 
cities of the United States and Canada. The water contains 
838.03 grains of solid contents in a gallon, and combines chloride of 
•odium, the prevailing chemical element of all the Saratoga Spring 
craters, with bicarbonate of lithia, and other valuable properties. 

57 



Hydrobromate of Potash a trace. 

Solid contents in one gallon. 460. 326 grs. 

Carbonic acid gas 316. ** 

Atmospheric air 4. M 

Gaseous contents in a gallon 320 inches. 



SARATOGA II.U STU VTED. 



Analysis of tho Hathorn Spring Water. 



Ohloride or Sodium. . .. 


. 609 9fi8 


< Ihloi Ide "I i'.,i;i nun . . , 


9.597 


Bromide of Sodium 


L.584 


Iodide of Sodium 


,198 


Fluoride of Oalolum 


a trace, 


Bicarbonate of Lithia . . . 


11.117 


Bicarbonate of Soda 


. 4.288 


Bicarbonate of Ma - 


170.408 


i: carbonate oi Llmi 


170.648 


Bicarbonate of 1 II ronl la. . 


:i i race. 


Bl< ai bonate of Bar} ta. . . 


I.'. ■:'. 


Bleu bonate ol [ron ,.., 


U38 



I lulphate ol Pota ■•> nunc. 

i'ii.. phate ol . oda 006 gn. 

Blborate of Soda a tit 

Alimiin.'i I'll " 

Bilica 1.S80 •' 

■ ii, ii Li ... ;i ,iiu:<:. 

Total wild contents... B88 1808 
Carbonic a.cid Ga In I d B76 1 It 
Inch* . 
Den ii,, 1.009, | 



Tho High Rock Spring 

[g on Spring Avenue, near bhe Empire, Star and Seltzer, and if 
believed bo be the first which was discovered In bhii vicinity. 
The peouliax mineral formation which gives itenameii a great 




[NTERIOB OF limn ROOK BPRING. 
curiosity, and early attraoted bhe attention of Indian hunters and 
the white pioneers of American oivilization. The water has 

58 



BARATOOA ILMJBTKATED. 

bixilt a curb for itKclf, the foundatioriH of which monk have bee» 

laid when tbe continent wan is lie infancy. 1 be water being lm- 
prtgnnt^ with partioJei of mineral robe t a n oeo, probably at Aral 
eatnratfid the ground about the outlet of the spring. Ah th« 
water evaporated, a speciee of rook w.'i.-. fornix] by the ooev 

mingling of earth and minora! ; and the continual overflow of 
mineral water, gradually built up the present enriouH dome 
nhaped rock, which || V>\ feet high, and 88 feet 4 inch ok in cir- 
cumference, and lookH like a miniature volcano. There il an 
Indian tradition that, many yearH ago, the water oeaeed to How 
over the rock, Owing to the diKpleanurc of the Great Spirit. The 
water, however, remained within reach from the top. and the 
overflow probably found a way of eKcapo through crack;-, which 

eventually hare been etopped by depoeite from the water. A 
handaome pagoda baa been erected over the fpring 1 and a bottUng- 

hou;.e near by contain", the u;,ual apparatus for preparing the 
water for market." It in ■aid that the DTtt v/hite man who u.ed 
thene waterH wan Sir William John;. on, who WBM brought b) the 
year!Vo7 through the wilderno;.h, which then surrounded Saratoga, 
on a litter, and drank the water a far weekn, when he way able to 
walk away withe BOO. The High Book Spring, which 

may therefore be looked upon M the father of ail there healing 
water-, hah stood the tent of over a century. Its water 11 a hu- 
perior tonic, and cathartic M well a?. 'fid in 

Kheurnati m. Scrofula, Dyspepsia. Constipation, and is especially 
beneficial in its, operation upon the kidney;-, and liver; and in- 
deed it pnrifiei and ■ fehe Whole system, clearing and 
beautifying the complexion and prolonging life. 

The High Bock water cure-. Bj ' Idttj of the 

liornach, and relieve.-; nervous or feverish irritation and headache. 

Perhapl there I Ol mineral water drinkers v/ho enjoj 

a vi«it to Saratoga ho much, or who realize 80 fully and ho speedilj 
the benefit- arising from drinking the water, an the cla M of per- 

roue known aa '"free livern." They suffer from functional die- 

turbance ari-.ieg from too much food. Bat when daily drinking 
the water they are wholly exempt from ail inconvenience 
from such surfeit not only, biit can DM double the quantity o/ 
food and drinks prcviouhly taken, and experience no ineonvemeno* 



8ARAT0 GA II LUSTR ATKD. 

Hie acid products which follow such free living under other »rir 
cumstances, and which produce sleepless nights, with morbid, 
nervous, and cerebral symptoms, are wholly prevented by the ust 
of this water, and refreshing sleep, long deferred, is fully enjoyed. 
All such of the above class as have become more or less diseased 
from liberal living, may have their stomachs restored to a health} 
condition by the use of this water. 

As an Aperient or Cathartic the water should be taken in the 
morning, half an hour before breakfast, its temperature not over 
300L For instant action, warm the water slightly. 

As a Tonic the water should be taken cool and in small quan- 
tities. When drank at meals as a beverage, the system will retain 
the minerals with strengthening and stimulating effect 

The condition of the system, which marks the early stage of 
the fearful disease of Scrofula, is usually removed by a timely and 
faithful use of the High Rock Water. Scorbutic persons, both 
young and more advanced in life, often witness large scrofuloua 
tumors rapidly pass away under the influence of this mineral water. 

The utmost care has been taken in retubing not only to keep 
oat all impure and fresh waters, but also to retain the fixed car- 
bonic acid gas, for which this Spring is so pre-eminently celebrated. 

The High Rock Spring is managed by a company of prominent 
gentlemen, who have taken possession of the spring with a deter- 
mination to extend the sales of the water in a manner commen- 
surate with the reputation of this famous spring. Mr W. S. 
Henry, is the competent superintendent. 

The following analysis of the High Rock Spring water was 
made by Prof. C. F. Chandler, Ph.D., of Columbia College School 
of Mines, who collected the water at the Spring for analysis. 
Analysis of one U. S. gallon : 



Chloride of Sodium 390.127 grains 

Chloride of Potassium , . . 8.497 

Bromide of Sodium 0.731 

Iodide of Sodium 0.9S6 

Fluoride of Calcium trace. 

Sulphate of Potassa 1 . 608 

Bicarbonate of Baryta . . . trace. 

Bicarbonate of Strontia . trace. 

Total 



Bicarbonate of Lime 131.739 graim 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia 54.924 ** 

Bicarbonate of Soda.... 34.888 M 

B carbonate of Iron 1.478 " 

Phosphate of Lime trace. 

Alumina 1.228 » 

Silica 2.260 « 



Cartwua /LMd Gas 409.468 oub. I* 



8ARAT0GA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Pavilion Spring 
la situated in the valley, a few rods east of Broadway, betweei 
Lake Avenue and Caroline Street, at the head of Spring Avenue 




The Red Spring. 

This Spring, so widely and justly celebrated for its curative 
properties, is located just north of the Empire Spring. It was 
discovered in 1770, and in 1784 a bath-house was erected at the 
Spring for the cure of eruptive and skin diseases. The efficacy of 
the water was thereby demonstrated, and since then, though no 
particular effort has been made to advertise the water, it has be- 
come celebrated throughout the entire country. Hundreds of 
testimonials from eminent people who have used the water both 
at the original fountain and at their homes attest its efficacy 
as a remedial agent. It is a powerful antacid, and is especially 
adapted to rheumatic and gouty affections. It also neutralizes, 
by its alkalinity, those acids which produce dyspepsia and its allied 
iiseases. In a general sense its therapeutic effects are alterative, 
and it is specially adapted to inflamed mucous surfaces. Scrof- 
ula, dyspepsia, kifney difficulties, salt rheum, inflamed eyea 

61 



SARATOGA [LLUSTBATED. 



granulated eyelids, are among the diseases which are cured by 
this water, Its general effect is to tone npthe system, regulate 

the secretions, and vitalize the blood, thereby creating an improved 
appetite and better assimilation. During the summer season the 
Spring is thronged with invalids. More than a hundred gallons 
of water are daily taken away by real invalids, besides that which 
is drank at the spring. The effect of tin; water, as an alterative, 
is far superior to that of any other spring, and so great that small 




quantities produce the desired results, adapting it wonderfully to 
the weakest stomachs in cases of extreme chronic disease. This 
quality of the water is due to the peculiar combination of iis in- 
gredients. Dr. Steele spoke of the wonderful power of this water 

in curing Salt rheum and skin diseases fifty years ago, in ;i work he 

wrote on the character of " Our Mineral Springs." 

The present owners, the Red Spring Co., retubed the Spring a 
few years agO and erected a spacious hot i ling house provided with 

ample facilities for bottling the water, in order to keep pace with 

the increasing demand for the water from non-resident patrons. 

They have also done, much to beautify the surroundings of the 
Spring and to improve the drive leading to if. To the mere 
pleasure-seeker the Red Spring is "a thing of beauty," while it, 
is "a joy forever" to the invalid, who finds there the coveted 

boon of restored health which he has elsewhere SOUght in vain. 

(52 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



Saratoga "A" Spring. 

The "A " Spring is situated on Spring- Avenue, beyond the Em 
pire spring 1 , and a little north of the Red Spring, on the eastern 
side of a steep bluff of calciferous sand rock. 

The following analysis of the spring, is by Julias G. Pohle, M.D. 

1.734 graiiih 



Chloride of Sodium 565.300 grains. 

Chloride of Potassium. . 357 M 

Chloride of Calcium 
and Magnesia trace 

Biiarbonate of Soda 6.752 " 

Bicarbonate of Lime. . . . 56.852 " 

Bicarbonate of Mag- 
nesia 20.480 ** 

Solid contents per gallon 



Bicarbonate of Irox... 

Sulphate of Lime 448 * 

Sulphate of Magnesia... 288 " 

Sulphate of Soda 2.600 * 

Sulphate of Potassa 870 *• 

Silicic Acid 1.460 «■ 

Alumina 880 " 



656.911 grain* 

Free Carbonic Acid Gas, per gallon 213 cubic Inche* 

Atmospheric air 4 *' * 4 




The Star Spring-. 
To reach this spring from Congress Hall, follow Broadway 
north five blocks to the railroad. Turn to the right and then to 
the second left, and in a few steps the long flight of stairs lead- 
ing down the bluff to the spring will be found. This spring wan 
formerly known as the President and the Iodine. It is over halt 



Bicarbonate of Magnesia.. 61.912 grs. 

Bicarbonate of Soda 12.662 " 

Bicarbonate of Iron 1.213 " 

Silica 1.283 " 

Phosphate of Lime, a trace 

Solid Contents in a Gallon, 616.685 " 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

a century since its waters were first known and used, but thei* 
full virtues were not developed until 1862. In lb80 it was re- 
tubed, and tubing carried 44 feet into solid rock, securing per- 
fect freedom from surface waters, and most perfect tubing of any 
of the Saratoga springs, as no other is tubed so far into the rock, 

Since 1862 the Saratoga Star Spring has greatly increased its 
popularity as a mineral water, and is now recognized as one ol 
the leading waters in the principal markets. The water is largely 
charged with carbonic acid gas which renders it peculiarly val- 
uable as a bottling water, since it preserves its freshness much 
longer than waters containing a smaller amount of the gas. 

We give the analysis of this celebrated spring, showing the 
amount of mineral properties in one gallon of the water as deter- 
mined by eminent chemists : 

Chloride of Sodium 378.962 grs. 

Chloride of Potassium 9.229 " 

Bromide of Sodium 55.66 '* 

Iodide of Sodium of Iodine 8.000 " 

Bulphate of Potass 6.400 " 

Bicarbonate of Lime 120.549 " 

Carbonic Acid Gas, 407.55 cubic inches in a gallon. 

The foregoing analysis was made at different times, extended 
over a period of thirty years, by Prof . C. F. Chandler; also by 
Dr. Steele and Prof. Emmons. The results show that the great 
medicinal properties of the Star consist of the large quantity of 
iodine and bromide of sodium, being 2 grs. of iodine and 14 grs. 
of Bromide to each quart. 

While the immediate effects of the Star Spring are carthartic, 
its remote effects are alterative, and these, after all, should be 
considered the most important, as the water thus reaches and 
changes the morbid condition of the whole system, giving the 
Star water the high repute which it has maintained from its first 
discovery. For the following complaints it has been used with 
marked advantage : Scrofula, Cutaneous Eruptions, Bilious Af- 
fections, Rheumatism, Gravel, Calculus, Suppression, Fevers, 
Dyspepsia, Constipation, Diabetes, Kidney Complaints, Loss of 
Appetite, Liver Difficulties. The proprietors of the Star were 
the first to introduce Saratoga Water to the public, on draught, 
through the United States, Canadas, and Europe, which they did 
in patent tin-lined barrels which preserve the full purity of the 
yrater. They furnish their waters fresh on draught, through 

66 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

^cs b *£-r err- of the unito,s — 

possible eost, by ». ^'^^ «*- the West 
quart bottles, knowing that the fr» !' e " aS in P int or 

health to invalids a4 f rom '^fl !" ° f ^ "** WiU «<*>» 
Thebottling-honseisa^f f- aSWe " M at the e P»r.gs 
With every convenient t^Z^TT^ ^ "-WW 
>^et ^honseand .the J^^™' 018 are ««— to, 




T The Saratoga Vichy Spring 

lawn Lddedv,^ res t tee": ""^t^ " "-»«" ^ 
Geyser Lake on the other It," "' "^ "* the *"** ««'* 
and are among the most att, " "^ ar ° T ^ P^uresqne, 

solid reek to the depth of 180 feet ' y "* " tLe 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

This spring contains more soda and less salt than any otnet 
Saratoga water, and takes special rank at once among the valua- 
Die mineral waters of this famous Spa. frcm its wonderful sim 
ilarity to the Vichy waters of France. It is the only alkalin« 
water found at Saratoga, and a specific in those troublesome 
affections arising from Acidity of the Stomach, Dyspepsia, Kid- 
ney and Bladder Difficulties ; several remarkable cases an 
already recorded of these diseases cured by its use. The fol 
lowing analysis of the Saratoga Vichy, made by Prof. C. F. Chan- 
dler, of the Columbia College School of Mines, demonstrates its 
value as a medicinal agent, and as an alkaline water of equal merit 
with the celebrated French Vichy . 
Contains in one U. S Gallon of 231 cubic inches: 



Chloride of Sodium 128.689 

Chloride of Potassium . . 14.113 

Bromide of Sodium 0.990 

Iodide of Sodium trace. 

Fluoride of Calcium trace. 

Bicarbonate of Lithia 1.760 

Bicarbonite of Soda. . 83.873 

bicarbonate of Magnesia 41.503 

Bicarbonate of Lime 95.522 



Bicarbonate of Strontia trace. 

Bicarbonate of Baryta 0.593 

Bicarbonate of Iron 0.052 

Sulphate of Potassa trace. 

Phosphate of Soda trace.' 

Biborate of Soda trace. 

Alumina 0.473 

Silica 0.758 

Organic Matter trace. 



Carbonic Acid Gas in one gallon, 383.071 cubic inches. Temperature 50° F. 

The Saratoga Vichy is an excellent table water, and superior to 
thft French Vichy, as it contains more natural carbonic acid gas, 
and mixes readily with all wines. It is not a cathartic water, 
(but mildly laxative if taken in quantity before breakfast,) and 
can be drank at all times with its good effect as a Nervous Stim- 
ulant, and in diseases of the Stomach, Kidneys, and Bladder. 

Geyser, Congress, Hathorn, and other prominent Saratoga 
mineral springs are saline waters, but the Saratoga Vichy is ai 
Alkaline water; that is, the alkaline properties (lithia, soda, 
magnesia, lime etc.,) overbalance the saline properties — Chlo- 
ride of Sodium (salt), and is therefore recommended in an entirely 
different class of cases. When the blood is impoverished frouo 
want of proper assimilation of food, or feeble tone of the stomach 
generally, when the system is below the normal standard and 
requires " toning up," the Saratoga Vichy should be used. 

One of the most remarkable effects of Saratoga Vichy is th« 
improvement or restoration of impaired digestive functions, in 
urease of appetite and improved tone. Dyspepsia is therefore a 
special field for use of this water, especially when accompanied 

G7 






SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

with sour stomach, slowness of digestion, loss of appotite, ver 
tigo, weakness, etc The Saratoga Vichy is rapidly gaining 
popular favor, and is much used in our large cities in place of 
the French Vichy waters, which are frequently stale. Genuine 
Saratoga Vichy is put up in clear glass bottles, half- pints, pints, 
and quarts, with a large " V, " in raised letters, blown in the glass, 
and in block-tin-lined barrels for draught purposes. Circulars 
containing full directions for its use may be obtained from those 
selling the water, or the Saratoga Vichy Spring Co., at Saratoga 
Springs, N. Y. A. K. Koberts, Esq., of Yonkers, is President, 
and A. G-. Munn, Jr., Secretary of the Company. It has a whole- 
sale depot at 122 Pearl St., N. Y., and Mr. C. D. Thurbur of 
Saratoga Springs is the efficient superintendent. 

The Diamond Spring 
Is just north of the Vichy in its grounds and is a valuable chaly 
beate or iron spring with ingredients quite unlike those of its near 
neighbors. It possesses valuable diuretic and tonic properties, 
and is specially recommended for those suffering from general 
debility. One glass has the exhilarating effect of champagne and 
is remarkably efficient in curing many complaints peculiar to the 
female sex. It contains a large amount of carbonic acid gas and 
bottles better than any iron water at Saratoga. The Diamond 
Spring belongs to the Saratoga Vichy Spring Co. 

The Washington Spring 
Is situated in the grounds of the Clarendon Hotel, on South 
Broadway. It is a chalybeate or iron spring, having tonic and 
diuretic properties. It is not a saline water, and the peculiar 
inky taste of iron is perceptible. It should be drank in the 
afternoon or evening, before or after meals, or just before retir- 
ing One glass is sufficient for tonic purposes. Many regard 
this as the most agreeable beverage in Saratoga. It is frequently 
called the " Champagne Spring," from its sparkling properties. 
It is a very popular spring, and in the afternoon is thronged wita 
visitors. It grounds are very picturesque, and in the evening arc 
lighted by gas. The Clarendon band discourses on the neighbor* 
.'ng piazza in summer, and fashionably attired people throng 
beneath the majestic pines, forming one of those peculiar grouf 
pictures which render Saratoga so charming. 

68 



8ARAT0GA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Saratoga Magnetic Spring 
Is situated on Spring Avenue, in the valley opposite the High 
Bock Spring. 1\ is unlike all other springs in Saratoga, having 
that wonderful magnetic influence which is one of the great 
marvels of nature. It was discovered recently, but its healing 
powers and properties have been thoroughly tested, and found to 
be highly valuable. The waters are not bottled, but are used foi 
bathing purposes. Quite a large number of convenient baths 
have been built at the spring, and special apartments for 
ladies have been provided. The baths are found to be highly 
efficacious in the cure of rheumatism, neuralgia, cutaneous and 
nervous affections, and have a perceptible tonic influence upon 
the system. Its valuable qualities are recognized by physicians 
and residents of Saratoga, and have added another and peculiai 
feature to this wonderfully rich mineral spring region. All 
should visit this spring, and while there you may have your knife 
magnetized by a bath in the spring if you choose. The baths are 
open from 7 a.m. to 6 P.M. daily, and attendants are at call. 

The Seltzer Spring 
Is close to High Rock Spring, and in the neighborhood of the Star 
and Empire. Although in such close proximity thereto, its water 
is entirely different. This is the only Seltzer spring in this coun- 
try. The character of the water is almost identical with that of 
the celebrated Nassau Spring of Germany, which is justly esteemed 
so delicious by the natives of the " Fatherland." 

The Crystal Spring 
Is located near the Columbian Hotel, in South Broadway. 

The Putnam Spring 
Is almost wholly used for bathing, and every facility is provided 
at the spring. To reach it from Congress Hall, walk along Broad • 
way to the north, and take the second turn to the right. 

The Kissingen Spouting Spring 
Is a pipe-well, 192 feet deep, on the east side of Geyser Lake. 

The United States Spring 
Is in the grounds of the Pavilion Spring, and owned by the sami 
company. Its waters are alterative in medicinal effect. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Flat Rock Spring-. 
The Flat Bock Spring, situated east of the Town Hall on the 
east side of Front Street, is one of the oldest of the many mineral 
fountains of Saratoga. It is stated on the authority of residents 
of Saratoga in 1774, that the Flat Kock and High Eock Springs 
were the only ones then known. The Flat Kock covered a quan- 
tity of ground of several rods in extent. It was considerably 
elevated above the marsh or swamp which surrounded it. The 
surface was flat and hard, and was perforated in numerous places, 
where the water stood in little pools, through the bottom of 
which it was constantly bubbling up. The marsh and grounds 
about the rock were much broken and trodden up by the foot- 
steps of wild animals which flocked here in great numbers to 
drink of the water. At an early date there were arrangements 
for bathing at the Flat Eock Spring, which was known as " the 
bathing spring." Some of the older citizens of Saratoga can re- 
member the time when about four o'clock in the afternoon a 
procession of people, carrying tin pails and pitchers, might be 
seen coming from this spring laden with spring water with 
which to make spring water biscuit. In those days spring water 
lemonade, foaming and sparkling, was the regulation drink of a 
hot afternoon, and the fashionable guests from the elegant Pa- 
vilion Hotel made it their daily resort. But by injudicious dig- 
ging and other experiments in hope of greater gains by former 
owners, the Flat Eock Spring was diminished in its flow, and it 
fell into neglect and disuse for a long period. An attempt is 
now being made to recover this long-lost spring. Eeuben Mer- 
chant has employed John B. Hall, who is a veteran spring dig- 
ger, and a pit has been sunk forty feet deep to the top of the 
close, fine, hard limestone rock, which overlies the Hudson river 
shale, from which all the Springs are supposed to issue. At that 
depth he found a round, smooth hole, and the water issued in 
such quantities that six pumps were kept constantly working to 
keep it clear. This water very much resembles that of the Colum- 
bian, and the analysis, conducted upon the same principle, con- 
firms the similarity. Its temperature is 48 deg., and its specific 
gravity at the temperature of 60 deg., the barometer standing at 
29.5 inches, is 1006.9, pure water below 1,000. This water is 
used in all cases for which the Columbian is recommended. 

69a 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Saratoga White Sulphur Spring. 
This valuable spring ia situated about one and one-half mile* 
cast of the village, and about one quarter of a mile east of tha 
Excelsior Spring. It should not be confounded with a spring of 
the same name, but which is some ten miles from Saratoga, on 
the east side of Saratoga Lake. The water of this spring is 
used for bathing and drinking, but is not bottled. The cura- 
tive properties of it are fully established, and the proprietors 
have erected a large and very commodious bathing-house, con- 
taining fifty baths, and supplied with every convenience for giv- 
ing warm or cold sulphur baths at all hours of the day. This 
spring supplies a very important element to the attractions of 
Saratoga. The other springs supply valuable mineral waters to 
be taken internally, while the White Sulphur waters supply that 
very important element of medicinal effects produced by bath- 
ing. Persons afflicted with rheumatism or cutaneous diseases 
receive positive benefit, and sometimes complete cure, by using 
these baths. Lady and gentleman attendants are always at hand 
during bathing hours, and every convenience for luxurious and 
wholesome bathing are afforded. The baths are open from 7 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. on week-days, and on Sundays from 7 am. to 6 p.m. 

The Saratoga Lake Railway conveys passengers from Lake 
Avenue direct to the stations at the Spring and Bath House. 

Stages run to and from the spring, through Broadway, to 
Circular Street, through Circular Street to Lake Avenue and the 
spring. Fare to the spring and return at pleasure, 25 cents. 

Invalids and others wishing stages to call at their residences, 
will please leave word at the office, No. 10 Grand Union Hotel 
Block, to the man in charge, in ample time to call, as the stages 
all run on schedule time, and the drivers are not allowed, under 
any circumstances, to leave* their route. Ask for time-table. 
A few yards south of the White Sulphur Spring is the mineral 

Eureka Spring. 
Its water is highly charged with carbonic gas, making it one of 
the most pleasant to the taste of all the Saratoga waters. II 
is a superior tonic, diuretic, and mild cathartic. 

«0 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED; 

Champion Spouting Spring. 
fhis phenomenal fountain is about one mile and a haif soutk 
of the village of Saratoga Springs, near the carriage road leading 
to Ballscon Spa, just east of the Railroad. It is one of the group 
of celebrated Spouting Springs which have recently been deveh 
jped and become a wonderful feature of the great watering-place 
It was discovered in 1871, after sinking a shaft to the unusual 
depth of 300 feet. From this deeply-concealed cavern, the pre- 
cious fountain burst forth to light, sending a column of water six 
and one-half inches in diameter, 25 or 30 feet into the air, pre- 
senting a marvelous and beautiful spectacle. The gaseous force 
of the water has been checked by a strong iron cap, fastened to 
the top of the tubing, and only a small jet of water is allowed to 
escape, except at five o'clock in the afternoon, when this cap is 
removed, and the water darts forth in large volume to a height 
of 80 to 100 feet, imitating the wonderful Yellowstone and Iceland 
Geysers. These Saratoga Geysers are exceedingly interesting, 
and should be visited. During the winter the water freezes 
around the tube, and gradually forms a column of solid ice from 
30 to 40 feet high, and several feet in diameter. On another page 
we present an engraving of this wonderful spring, as it appears in 
winter. This marvelous ppring possesses the chemical elements 
common to the Saratoga spring waters, in larger quantities than 
any other spring yet developed. We append the analysis by Prof. 
C. F. Chandler, of Columbia College, New York : 

SOLID CONTENTS OF ONE U. S. GALLON, 231 CUBIC INCHES. 
Chloride of Sodium 702.239 



Bicarbonate of Baryta 2.082 

Bicarbonate of Iron 0.647 

Sulphate of Potassa 0.252 

Phosphate of Soda 0.010 

Biborate of Soda trace. 

Alumina 0.498 

Silica, 0.699 

Organic matter . . trace. 



Chloride of Potassium 40. 446 

Bromide of Sodium 3.579 

Iodide of Sodium 0.234 

Fluoride of Calcium trace. 

Bicarbonate of Lithia 6.247 

Bicarbonate of Soda 17.624 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia 193.912 

Bicarbonate of Lime 22r.070 

Bicarbonate of Strontia 0.082 Total grains 1195.1 

Carbonic Acid Gas, 465. 458 cubic inches. Temperature, 49° Fahr. 

It contains more mineral properties per gallon than any other 

spring water in Saratoga. Hence a less quantity will produce 

the usual effect. It acts very favorably upon the kidneys and 

liver, and its medicinal value is established by the testimony 

high medical authority. 





CHAMPION SPOUTING SPRING. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 
Preparing the Waters for Export. 

The bottling and packing is carried ou throughout the year, 
and, except during the height of the visiting season, when s« 
much Is consumed at the springs as materially to decrease the 
supply for bottling, the work is prosecuted night and day. The 
arrangements for this purpose are the most complete of anything 
of the kind in the country, and all the various operations are 
carried on with a care, skill, and perfection unsurpassed. 

In order to increase the facilities for obtaining bottles, the 
Congress and Empire Spring Company erected a good glass-house 
some time since, and now, not only this company, but many oi 
the others are easily supplied with such bottles as they need 
Some of the bottles are of dark glass, and others, like those use<l 
oy the Geyser Company, are of white or crystal glass. 

Each bottle, before being filled, is thoroughly washed and 
rinsed with both warm and cold water, a stream of each of which 
is constantly pouring into the tanks before the washers. To de 
tach any impurities that cannot be removed by other means, a 
small brass chain is dropped into each bottle and thoroughly 
shaken about. .The substitution of this simple and effective 
method of cleansing for the use of shot or pebbles is an improve 
ment which might well be adopted by every housewife. 

The corks used are all branded with the initials or trademarks 
of the companies, and none but the very first quality of cork- 
wood is used. The name of company can be easily seen through 
the glass, and none but the willfully stupid need be deceived in 
buying a single pint or quart. 

For instance, the corks of the Congress and Empire Co.'s bot 
ties are marked thus : 

Congress Water, Empire Water, 

C. & E. S. Co. C. & E. S. Co. 

Columbian Water, 
C. & E. S. Co. 

The brands used for this purpose are set into a small table, 
their lettered faces being nearly level with its surface. They 
are kept hot by a jet of gas turned on them from below, and the 

72 




STORE-ROOM, CONGRESS SPRING 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

corks receive their brand by being rolled over the heated types- 
an expert boy performing the simple operation very rapidly, 

The wire used for securing the corks is manufactured express 
ly for the purpose from the finest quality of copper, some twt 
thousand pounds being required annually by one company. 

The bottles are securely packed in wooden boxes, and every 
box is fully marked to prevent all mistake. Each box contain! 
a convenient quantity for family use, which is usually two dozen 
quart or four dozen pint-bottles. 

The waters are either pumped through block-tin pipes from 
the springs, or the water is forced into the bottles by its own hy- 
drostatic pressure. When pumps are employed a large receiver 
is used to hold the water under pressure and free from contact 
with the air, and in drawing it the utmost care is taken to pre- 
vent the escape of the gas held in the water. In the case of the 
pipe wells the water is drawn like so much soda-water into the 
bottles from pipes that tap the main wells many feet below their 
outlets. 

At the Congress Spring the use of the pump has been dispensed 
with. A pit has been sunk in the bottling-house to a depth below 
the level of the water, and the water now flows directly into the 
bottles, and is thus preserved in all its purity and strength. 

The corks, after being soaked in warm water until they be- 
come so soft as to be easily compressed, are driven into the bot- 
tles by machinery, the process reducing their size before enter- 
ing the bottles about one-third. It requires a strong bottle to 
stand the pressure of their expansion after being driven in, and 
even strong men sometimes find it difficult to pull them out. A 
single workman will fill and cork from fifteen to twenty dozen 
bottles per hour. 

After being filled and corked, the bottles are laid npon theii 
sides in large bins, holding from one hundred and fifty to tw« 
hundred dozen each, where they are allowed to remain four 01 
five days, or longer, to test the strength of the bottles by the ex- 
pansion of the gas, and also to detect any corks that may be leaky 
#r otherwise imperfect. The breakage, while in this situation. 

73 



fc^RATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

is about five per cent, of the whole number filled. The bottlea 
frequently burst with a sharp report, like the firing of a pistol 
or the cracking of champagne bottles. All leaky corks are 
drawn, and the bottles refilled with water direct from the spring 
While all these precautions add largely to the expense of put- 
ting up the waters, th ey render a leaky, and consequently a bad 
bottle almost impossible, and they also render breakage in sub- 
Bequent handling a matter of rare occurrence, 

When the bottles and corks have been thus thoroughly tested, 
the corks are securely wired, this operation being performed 
with great rapidity by employees long trained to the work. 

The next process is the packing in cases, which is also done 
with great care and remarkable dexterity. The neck of each 
bottle is firmly wound with clean, new straw, and the bottles are 
placed on their sides in tiers of equal number, a parting strip of 
straw being laid between each bottle and its neighbor on either 
Bide. A layer of straw is also placed between the tiers of bottlea 
as well as at the top and bottom of the box. When the box ia 
filled, the packer walks over the bottles, for the double purpose 
of settling them properly in their places, and as a further test of 
their strength, before the lid is put in its place and nailed dowa 
If a bottle gives way under the weight of the packer, of course 
the whole box is emptied, and not again repacked until it is 
thoroughly dry, as must be all the straw which is used for pack- 
ing. 

As immense quantities of these waters are put up during the 
winter months, when the demand is comparatively small, and 
when the weather is usually too cold for their safe transporta 
don, large storage capacity is required to secure and protect the 
Btock on hand. Some idea of the room required for this purpose 
may be formed from the fact that the buildings used exclusively 
for storing water in boxes, at the Congress Spring alone, have 
aa area of over twelve thousand square feet on the ground floor, 
with capacity for safely keeping at a proper temperature through 
the winter months more than twenty thousand boxes of the water 

The proprietors of the springs are always pleased to show the 
wonders of their bottling plants to visitors, and an instructive 
hour may well be spent in them. 
74 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The rows of men and boys, bare-armed before the steaming 
washing tubs : the salt-incrusted receivers, and the bottle-fillei 
with dextrous fingers loading up the pints and quarts ; the corker, 
with his queer machinery ; the huge bins of full er empty bot- 
tles piled in countless thousands, one over the other, the curious 
industry of the wire-boys and the packers ; and the vast caverns 
of the storage cellars, all unite to make a scene of singular inter- 
est, and the intelligent visitor should make it a point to see, at 
least, one of these immense establishments. 

The exports of spring water in casks is somewhat different. 
The casks are of the best of oak, and are securely lined with pure 
block- tin. This metal must not be confounded with our com- 
mon tinware. That is only sheet iron having a thin skin of 
tin. This tin coating soon wears away, and then the iron rusts, 
as the good housekeeper knows to her sorrow. Block-tin, such 
as is used as a lining for these casks, is a soft, white metal, that 
contains no iron and cannot rust. It is made air-tight and will 
hold the water alone without the cask. The cask is only to keep 
the tin cask inside in shape, as the metal is so soft that a barrel 
of water could hardly stand alone, much less be rolled about in 
a freight-car. 

There are two openings in these casks at the top, and to each 
is secured a block-tin pipe. One pipe extends nearly to the bot- 
tom of the cask, and the other is only an inch or two long. In 
filling the cask the water-pipe from the spring is screwed to the 
top of the larger pipe, and the water, under the pressure of its 
gas, flows in and driving the air out of a small air-hole fills the 
cask. When it is full the air-hole is stopped up, but the pres- 
sure is continued for a moment or two longer, so that that cask 
is not only fi.led solid, but is packed, so to speak, and the watei 
is under the same pressure in the cask as in its native spring. 
la those casks the waters of the Excelsior, Geyser, and other 
■prings is readily transported to all parts of the country. In 
drawing the water, a block-tin pipe, with a suitable cooler, is at- 
tached to the longer pipe, and a small air pump to the shortei 
pipe. On pumping air into the cask the water flows out through 
an ordinary soda-fountain faucet in its native purity. When thf 
casks are empty they are returned for refilling, and it often hap 

75 



SARATOGA ILLUSTKAFBD. 

pens that a single dealer will have two or more casks constantly 
on the road, going and coming each way, perhaps two thousand 
miles or more by rail or boat. 

The Danger of Artificial Waters. 

The value and importance of Saratoga's waters, and the eve* 
growing demand for them has stimulated the manufacture ol 
artificial waters. Owners of soda apparatus, and druggists with 
small knowledge and smaller conscience, have concoctt^d a num 
ber of queer mixtures that they call mineral waters Some of 
these strange drinks are about as useful and harmless as good 
Croton water and vastly dearer, for one can have that for the ask- 
ing. Some are put up in bottles and siphons, and called after fa 
mous Saratoga springs, and are even packed in abandoned Con- 
gress-water boxes. Their only connection with Saratoga is in 
name, and the name is a fraud and a pretense. Even the trade- 
marks of the springs have been imitated, and in the case of the 
Congress Spring, an important law suit was instituted with the 
verdict in favor of the spring. The Congress Company thus 
speak of the matter : 

"The use of the terms ' Congress Water/ * Columbian Water/ 
or ' Empire Water,' alone or in combination with other words, 
when applied to any other than the liquids naturally flowing from 
these springs, is an evident violation of the rights of the proprie- 
tors, and a fraud upon the public. In a recent case, determined in 
the United States Court, the manufacturer and vender of an arti- 
ficial compound, sold as Congress water, were enjoined from put- 
ting up or selling ' any water not of the natural flow of the said 
spring, in bottles or packages marked with the words " Congress 
Water," or with words of like import.' It would be well for the 
public if this matter were more fully understood, as the articles 
thus offered are entirely worthless, and often dangerous ; theit 
use frequently producing griping pains, vertigo, etc., and some- 
times resulting in serious permanent difficulties — effects wholly 
different from those produced by the genuine waters. They 
weaken the digestive powers, and destroy the tone of the stom- 
ach and bowels, often rendering a mild case of dyspepsia incur* 
Me, Old boxes and bottles, bearing the genuine brands, are of 

70 



(SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

ten bought up by counterfeiters for the purpose of filling then 
with tneir valueless articles — for which reason purchasers should 
always examine the corks, which cannot be used a second time 
and which, if the waters are genuine, will have the brand of tht 
bottling company. 

" The injury inflicted by the sale of these artificial compounds 
upon the proprietors and the public is double ; for, on taking 
these spurious articles and finding either no effect, or injurious 
effects, from their use, purchasers in future refuse the genuine 
waters, supposing they have already tried them ; or, knowing 
that the waters used are artificial, decline the natural waters on 
the supposition that they have tried what is in substance the 
same, without benefit — as if there existed the slightest compari 
son between them ! 

" That it is impossible to form these waters artificially tha 
testimony of scientific men is uniform and abundant. ' It is im- 
possible,' says the celebrated English chemist, Sir Humphrey 
Davy, ' to recombine the ingredients so as to make an article o* 
equal quality, the effects of which will be the same as the natural 
water.' The language of the late Dr. James Johnson, of London, 
is as follows : ' Mineral waters contain many agents which we 
cannot imitate by artificial combinations. This is proved by 
every day's observations. Thus, the saline, aperient mineral 
waters will produce ten times more effect than the identical 
materials artificially dissolved and mixed. The same is true 
with respect to the chalybeate springs. A grain of iron in them 
is more tonic than twenty grains exhibited according to the phar- 
macopoeia.' 

" An acorn may be analyzed, but it is as impossible for the 
chemist to form an acorn from its chemical elements as it is foi 
him to create the oak which in the course of nature the acorn ia 
destined to produce. To give the name, therefore, of Congress 
water to a mere solution of common salt, soda, magnesia, lime, 
and iron, or other minerals, is as absurd as to give the name of 
wine to a mixture of cream of tartar, alcohol, and mineral salts, 
which this liquid proves to be when analyzed. 

" In so important a matter it is deemed well to add the testi- 
mony of Dr. Constantino James, to be found in his ' Practical 

77 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Ghiide to the Mineral Watering-places of Europe.' 'Artificla 
mineral waters of the beet fabrication are, in a medical and 
chemical point of view, only a poor counterfeit of the real waters 
whose names they usurp. They are doubly pernicious, as they 
do not attain the physician's aims, and cast a certain discredit 
on the genuine production.' 

" The testimony of Dr. A. A. Hayes, and S. Dana Hayes, Esq. 
State Assayers for Massachusetts, is to the same effect: * Al- 
though we know just what the genuine water contains, an arti- 
ficial water made by the analysis would not be the same thing 
medicinally. Mineral waters are the productions of natural 
chemical agencies, aided by time, and we really know but little 
of the resulting combinations and their physiological effects.' 

" However skillfully combined, therefore, the manufactured 
imitations may be, they are destitute of the characteristic proper- 
ties which nature so mysteriously and abundantly supplies in 
these springs. The editor of the New York Gazette gives hia 
readers a timely caution, as follows : ' If you don't want to grow 
old prematurely ; if you would keep the teeth in your mouth, 
the luster in your eyes ; if you would not have a used-up digest- 
ive apparatus ; if you would give a wide berth to Bright's dis- 
ease, which is making so many bite the dust ; then, first and most 
of all, don't drink the manufactured mineral waters that are 
offered from numberless fountains. They are sadly injurious, 
and very many people are drinking them to excess.' ' Go to the 
natural springs,' says Dr. Bourdon, a celebrated French physi- 
cian. 'Nature is far better than the laboratory. I cannot con- 
demn in too strong terms the use of artificial mineral waters 
They never replace those of the natural springs.'" 

The Paris Figaro says : The eminent French chemist, Boutmy 
and Dr. Lutaud state that after having submitted several samples 
of siphons to a chemical analysis tbey have found relatively con- 
siderable quantities of lead, ammoniac and azotic substances. 
They have discovered as much as 14 milligr. of tin per litre, and 
in some samples up to 2 milligr. of copper. The natural waters 
are, at least, of a purity which it would be absurd to contest. 

78 




Entrance to Congress Spring Park 
Monument Square. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ENTERTAINING WALKS. 

There are a number of walks in and about Saratoga Spring* 
and the visitor will find ample space for exercise and amuse- 
ment. Shady woods, breezy hills, and crowded streets brilliant 
with carriages, mingle in charming confusion, and present va 
ried attractions in every direction. 

To give plain directions to enable the visitor to dispense with 
a guide, we will use the front steps of Congress Hall as a start- 
ing point from which to make such walking or riding tours as 
seem desirable. Of course, the grand promenade is Broadway. 
Here one may see the great hotels, the carriages, and the gor- 
geous apparel. Fine raiment is a factor in the problem of Sara- 
toga happiness ; at least, the seeing it is, though one need not 
ruin herself for millinery, unless one likes that sort of thing. 
It may be comforting to know that even dresses that have been 
worn twice are allowable. You may be as sober as a subdued 
mouse if you choose, but the majority prefer the brilliancy of 
"enraged rat color," and the effect is vastly entertaining. Stand- 
ing on the front steps of Congress Hall, we have the lofty piazza 
of the Grand Union, its brilliant stores and throngs of visitors 
opposite. The broad road, kept in fine order, and the wide grass- 
trimmed sidewalks are crowded with teams and people, and the 
scene is at once animated, high-colored, and interesting. Min- 
gling in the multitude on the walk, we may turn to the right. 
Stores fully equal to city shops line the way. The American 
and the great United States hotels soon come opposite. Next 
stands the Marvin House, and the Holden House. The street turns 
slightly, and, after passing the Town Hall, the hotels change to 
private houses, and the stores to gardens. Crossing the railroad 

79 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

the Waverley House is passed on the right, and the Washington 
House and Broadway Hall on the left. Keeping on up the gen 
tie hill, a number of new and very pretty gardens and villas ar« 
met, and between the houses on the right open wide views ovei 
the open country. The hills beyond rise into lovely mountain- 
ranges on the horizon. These are the Green Mountains in Ver- 
mont, and in many places about the Springs they make an ever- 
beautiful frame-work to the landscape. This part of the town 
is laid out with new streets, and in time will become a fashiona- 
ble and desirable quarter. Many new houses have been put up, 
and the young rows of trees and well-made streets will soon 
attract a desirable population. Broadway continues on some dis 
tance further into the country, and eventually leads to Glen 
Mitchell, about 2| miles from Congress Hall. Of this place 
more when we come to speak of drives. The return walk leads 
again into all the crowds of elegant loiterers about the grand 
notels, and ends where it began. 

Another and shorter walk turns to the left from Congresf 
Hall, and follows South Broadway. Congress Park is on the 
.eft, and the site of the Grand Hotel, burned Oct. 1, 1874, and 
Crystal Spring by the Columbian Hotel, and the hotel itself are 
»n the right. This house is of moderate size, directly in the 
eenter of all the fashionable life, and opposite the park. The 
Clarendon comes next, with Washington Spring in its court. 
This is a most delightful place, and is patronized by the select 
and wealthy few who prefer to take their comfort without so 
much grandeur as the larger houses bestow. On the corner of 
William Street, opposite the Clarendon, is the Roman Catholic 
Church, south of which are the Albermarle and Everett Board- 
ing Houses. Just beyond the Everett House, Ballston Avenue 
turns off diagonally to the right. From this point we can turn 
either way, and wander through quiet streets, lined with beauti- 
ful and costly houses, each half-buried in its shrubbery and 
gardens. By turning to the left we enter Circular Street, and 
may pass quite around Congress Park, and so back to the hotel 
through East Congress Street. Ccngress Spring and Columbian 
Spring are both in this fine park and , if you care to enter, you 
May wander at will. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Congress Spring Park. 
This beautiful park comprises almost the entire plot of ground 
encompassed by Broadway, Congress and Circular streets. Orig- 
inally a forest, possessing many natural attractions, it has been 
materially improved by grading, draining, and the addition of 
many architectural adornments, until it now presents a most beau- 
tiful appearance, and is one of Saratoga's principal charms. 
During the year 1876 the Congress and Empire Spring Co. ex- 
pended nearly $100,000 on these improvements, and now it sur- 
passes all other parks of equal size in the United States in the 
beauty of its graceful and artistic architecture. The grade of the 
low ground was raised from two to seven feet, and a new plan of 
drainage adopted, which involved in its system the elegant new 
reservoir and the charming miniature lake. The grand entrance 
is at the junction of Congress street and B oadway, near the 
Grand Union Hotel and Congress Hall, on what is now called 
Monument Square. On entering turn to the right and you may 
pass through a short colonnade to the graceful spring-house over 
Columbian Spring, or from the entrance turn to the left through 
a longer colonnade, and you come to the interior of the artistic 
pavilion over Congress Spring. In this interior the Congress 
Spring water is passed by uniformed attendants, and you may 
partake while seated at a little table upon which the water will 
be served. The process of drawing the water is novel, and you 
will be interested to observe it, while the mode of serving affords 
opportunity to drink at leisure and at ease, without the jostling 
and spilling incident to the old systems pursued at the other 
springs in town. Passing down a few steps and along the colon- 
nade, you reach the elegant cafe, where hot coffee and other re- 
freshments may be obtained at reasonable prices, and may be 
partaken of while listening to the park music and enjoying the 
charming view of the lakes and grounds from the cafe pavilion. 
Passing from the cafe you may stroll at will, visiting the lakes and 
the shaded lawns, and listening to the delightful music of the 
very celebrated Park Band, which plays morning, afternoon, and 
evening. In the evening the Band occupies the very unique and 
artistic Music Pavilion in the centre of the lake. Strolling along 

Si 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



to the south part of the grounds, you may visit the deer sheltei 
and park, where are several animals that roam and skip about 
within the enclosure, greatly to the delight of the children and 
the amusement of the adults. In the park, amid the flowers and 
shrubs, strolling over the grass-covered, shaded lawns, or loung- 
ing under the grand old forest trees, enchanted by the charming 
music — here it is that one may enjoy the supreme delights of a 
genuine rural summer resort. Every convenience for park enjoy- 
ment is here afforded, including abundant settees and shade, and 
the security of efficient police supervision. The grounds are 
thoroughly lighted by gas at night, rendering them available as 
a place of evening resort. The scene in the evening, on the 
occasion of one of the grand concerts, is remarkably brilliant 
and charmingly fascinating. 

Admission to the park is regulated by tickets, for which a nom- 
inal charge is made. Single admission tickets, admitting to all 
except evening concerts, 10 cents each, or 25 tickets for $2.00, 
50 for $3.50, 100 for $6.00. No charge for children under ten 
years of age accompanied by older persons. Admission to Grand 
and Sacred Evening Concert, 25 cents, unless advertised other- 
wise. Tickets may be obtained at the entrance to the park. 

Some may wonder that in a Resort like Saratoga, there is no 
park open to the public without charge, but such is the fact. 
Congress Park, however, supplies for this trifling charge, the de- 
sirable seclusion and security of a private park. 

Access may be obtained to the Columbian Spring without entering 
the Congress Spring Park. A nominal admission fee is charged at the 
gate, just west of the main entrance to the park. The admission 
fee of ten cents will admit one to the Park, and both the Congress 
and Columbian Springs. This slight charge secures for visitors 
greater privacy and less annoyance than would prevail were it not 
for the slight restriction. 

82 



tei 

rvn* 




INTERIOR OF CONGRESS SPRING PAVILION. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED 

Starting out from Congress Hall, we may, in a little longei 
walk, see some of the minor wonders of the place. Turning 
to the left, down East Congress Street, past Congress Spring and 
Park, we come to the opening of the broad Union Avenue, that 
leads to the race-course and the lake. Just opposite the park 
is a large brick building, formerly owned and occupied by the 
late John Morrissey, for purposes best known to himself and his 
patrons. It is still involved in the mysteries of '* ways that are 
dark and tricks that are vain." In the grove on the top of the hill 
to the left is a collection of promiscuous amusements for the chil- 
dren and somewhat frisky adult population. Archery, hobby- 
horse, whirligigs, tenpins, ice-cream, lemonade, etc., form some of 
the enticements of this fascinating play-ground. By turning to 
the right and passing along Circular Street around Congress Park, 
and towards the Geyser Spring, we come to the 

Indian Camp and Circular Railway. 

This railway is a small piece of track built in a circle, and pro- 
vided with small cars. Here one may have the infantile joy of a 
ride in an enlarged baby-carriage round and round. 

A number of shanties, half tent, half hut, are planted here, 
and a gypsy band, part Canadian, part Indian, live therein, and 
sell such things as good Indians are supposed to wear and use. 
Small boys urge the visitor to set up the persuasive cent, that 
they may hit it with their little arrows, and pocket the same. 
The performance is varied by sundry domestic scenes, with 
appropriate dresses and motions, and the whole affair is very 
picturesque, and is highly instructive to the inquiring mind. To 
be sure, it is a little theatrical, and one has grave doubts con- 
cerning the fidelity of the display to nature ; but it serves to fill 
an idle hour, and amuse children and others. 

Again walking from Congress Hall along Congress Street, we 
may take Circular Street to the left, and go on past a number of 
charming private places, till we come to 

Temple Grove Seminary. 
This institution is under the charge of C. P. Dowd, A.M., of 
Yale, and affords every advantage in the way of a first-class, 
education. The usual course occupies four years, and includes 







jSat j » j %J&t3 JP 







MUSIC PAVILION IN CONGRESS PARK. 



SABATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

the best collegiate studies, with ample liberty in the way ol 
optional studies. Some of our best people may be counted 
among its patrons, and its charges are said to be very reasonable 
In the summer the house is used as a boarding-house, and it 
takes the position of a first-class hotel. Porters at the station 
meet all trains. 

It occupies the entire square, and is pleasantly surrounded 
with gardens and trees. The location is desirable, as being just 
clear of the bustle and stir of Broadway, and still quite near all 
the springs and places of amusement. 

The Remedial Institute, 

Carried on by Drs. S. S. and S. E. Strong, is a well-known 
and popular establishment. During the summer season it is 
opened as a boarding-house, and is well patronized on account 
of its central and agreeable location, and refined society. 

After passing two more blocks on the right, we come to Lake 
Avenue, and turn to the right. This is a broad and pleasant 
street, leading to the entrance of Excelsior Park. 

After leaving the more thickly-settled streets, we come to open 
fields on the right, and a fine grove of pines on the left. Here 
lovely views of the mountains open to the east, and the village 
comes to an end. Excelsior Park is a short distance on, up the 
road ; but, by turning down the last street to the left, we may 
enter a cool and shady path through the woods, and walk along 
the brow of the hills ; and finally, after many a turn, down into 
the new park, and reach the bottling-house and spring-house, 
and take a refreshing drink of Excelsior water. 

Excelsior Park. 

This park comprises two hundred acres of land extending 
from Lake Avenue to Loughberry Lake, and including the grove. 
The land about the Spring and the lake is laid out in villa plots, 
and some have already been sold and built upon. The spring 
and the bottling-house are well worth a visit, as the system of 
preparing the water for export is somewhat peculiar to the place. 
Visitors are freely shown all the processes, and allowed to 
roam at will through the grounds of the park. Leaving the 

84 




wm »p£ ■■■■ 

Thorwaldsen Vase, 
Congress Spring Park. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

spring, we can return by way of the path through the woods, or 
take a little longer route back by the way of Spring Avenue. 
Opposite Excelsior Spring, an avenue leads directly to the White 
Sulphur and Eureka Springs. Near the road is a small brook called 
Loughberry creek, and the Minnehaha Spring. The large house on 
the top of the western slope of the valley, is the Mansion House 
It is an excellent boarding-house, and the majestic elms in 
front, the ample lawn and play-grounds, and the beautiful land- 
scape views it commands, attract a very select class of boardem 
who appreciate its rural freedom and scenery. Here a road leads 
north, around Excelsior Lake, but we follow Spring Avenue to 
the left, and soon reach the Loughberry Water Works, where the 
great Holly Engines continually pump the lake-water through the 
village. A few moments may be well spent here examining 
these splendid engines in motion. Walking on, we soon reach 

The Spring* In the Village. 

Here the gay scenes peculiar to Saratoga begin. Hundreds ol 
people are gathered around the fountains, sipping or drinking 
deep as their fancy or doctors bid, and the road is crowded with 
carriages bringing their festive loads to the waters. There is 
much of wealth and display, good nature and fashion, flirtation 
and fine clothes, and it is altogether amusing and jolly. First 
comes the Old Red Spring, with its box of a bottling-house. Op- 
posite, near the railroad, is the Saratoga ''A" Spring ; and beyond 
to the left, is the great establishment of the Empire Spring. 
The Star, High Rock, and Seltzer offer their varied charms next 
in order. It is true, the scene is not wholly lovely. There are a 
number of rather disagreeable old traps on the bluff, and along 
the wretched little street, but one may easily drown such minor 
griefs in a tumbler of salt water (far better than salt tears). We 
escape up the long step by High Rock, and soon reach Broadwaj 
and the hotel again. Saratoga Springs has its objections, its 
old shanties, and offensive advertisements painted on its rocks 
and fences, its muddy brook, and ill-kept lanes ; but we can easi- 
ly forgive them all on reaching Broadway and its palaces. 

Another shorter walk past the railroad station, and then tc 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

the right, through Clinton Street, and on out into the open coun 
try, will give one a good idea of the newer portions of the vil 
lage, and afford a charming view of the country to the north and 
west. On reaching the hill, just clear of the village, a wide view 
will be obtained of the Kayaderosseras mountains in the north* 
west, and the blue peaks of the Catskills at the far south. Re- 
turning, we may keep off to the left and strike Broadway just 
beyond the Waverley House. 

Other walks may be taken at will through the village, with no 
fear of losing the way, as the tall roofs and towers of the great 
hotels readily serve as guide-marks in every direction 



Wood Lawn Park. 

This Park is the private property and former residence of the 
Hon. Henry Hilton, but through his liberality and public spirit 
these beautiful grounds, comprising about 500 acres, are thrown 
open to visitors and residents of Saratoga. It is laid out in 
walks and drives, seven or eight miles in extent, and the paths 
winding over the lawn and through the shaded groves of forest 
trees, offer inviting retreats of entrancing beauty that should en- 
tice all lovers of nature. The spacious villa crowns the highest 
elevation, and from its site extended views may be obtained, 
embracing in their scope the Catskill Mountains to the south, the 
valley of the Hudson and the Green Mountains of Vermont to 
the east, and the Greenfield Hills^ and southernmost spurs of the 
Adirondacks, to the north and west. The Park is most directly 
reached from the village by following North Broadway to Third 
street, thence to the west two blocks, where you enter by the 
main entrance. There are two other entrances, one on Broad- 
way, farther north, and the other on Clinton street, on the west 
side of the Park. Visitors are freely admitted, and it is hoped 
they will not abuse the privileges so generously afforded them. 

Other walks may be taken at will through the village, with no 
fear of losing the way, as the tall roofs and towers of the great 
hotels readily serve as guide -marks in every direction. 
86 




CHAPTER VII. 

DRIVES. 

Saratoga is celebrated for its horses and carriages. Excel 
lent drivers and reasonable charges have made riding populai 
and good roads lead to various places of interest in the neigh 
borhood. The grand drive is to 

Saratoga Lake. 

To aid the visitor who is his own driver, full directions will be 
given for all the drives in the immediate neighborhood. From 
Congress Hall to the lake, we turn down East Congress Street, 
past Congress Park, and enter the broad avenue leading to the 
east. This is Union Avenue, the great fashionable drive. In 
about a mile the village is cleared, and we pass the new race- 
track on the right. The old track, now used for a training 
ground, is opposite. At the new track, races take place in July 
and August, attracting immense throngs of visitors from all 
parts of the country. Even if no races are going on, it is worth 
while to drive into the grounds and see the place. Beyond the 
race-course the road leads down hill, and affording some lovely 
views of the Green Mountains. After passing a mile or two of 
meadows and woods, the road climbs out on top of a level pla- 
teau, and reaches 

Moon's Lake House. 

This house is situated on a grassy bluff, about fifty feet above 
the lake, affording a full view of its placid waters. Saratoga Lake, 
about eight miles long and perhaps two wide, is one of the most 
beautiful sheets of water to be found. The wooded hills at the 
end, and the glimpses of the Catskills beyond, the farms and 

87 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

meadows on either bank, the little steamers and pleasure boats 
everywhere busy on the water, and the elegant grounds adjoin- 
ing the house, make this a favorite place of lesort. Black bass 
and pickerel abound in the water, and at Mr. Moon's tables, out 
of doors or on his piazzas, we may have fish fresh from' the wa- 
ter, and fried potatoes that have become famous through the 
Union. The park-like establishment next to the hotel is the 
property of Frank Leslie, the New York publisher, and it is 
well worth a visit. The boat races held here in the summer at- 
tract a great company every season, and make a feature of Sara- 
toga life. Myer's Hotel is another resort on the eastern thore 
of the lake, and is reached by turning to the left just before 
reaching Moon's House. On the ride back to the village, some 
fine mountain views may be noticed soon after leaving the lake. 

Gridley's Trout Ponds. 
A shorter drive in the same direction may be taken to a pictur- 
esque little dell near the Race Course, and about a mile from 
Congress Hall, where a series of fish-ponds afford sport for fish- 
lovers. Mr. Gridley, the proprietor, raises brook-trout in great 
quantities, and during the season opens his ponds to such as care 
to fish, and are willing to pay a dollar a pound for all they cap- 
ture and take away. The fish are kept till three years old, and 
are then in fine order for the table. The visitors are provided 
with lines and bait, and chairs, if they wish them ; and under 
the shade of the trees, they may pick out as much speckled 
liveliness as they want. As there are many thousand fish in 
the ponds, the sport is both active and abundant. To reach the 
ponds, drive out over Union Avenue to the third turn on the right 
beyond Congress Park. Turn here, and follow the road till a 
large brick house is reached. Just here a lane on the left will 
lead directly to the ponds. The price may seem high, but when 
we consider that this is the regular market price of live trout, 
and consider the elegant comfort with which children and ladies 
may indulge in the pastime, it does not seem unreasonable. 
Half a hundred carriages often gather around these ponds on a 
pleasant summer's day, while their occupants go a fishing in 
royal style. 

88 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



Glen Mitchell. 



A drive out Broadway (north of Congress Hall) to this pleasan 
resort, and then around Excelsior, will be well worth the doing 
The route is to follow Broadway direct to the Glen Mitchell 
Hotel and the Driving Park. The Hotel is a favorite house for 
fish and game dinners, and the park makes an admirable drive 
for testing speed. The Saratoga County Agricultural Society 
have their buildings and meetings here, and the drive, and the 
beautiful grounds about the hotel, are free to the public. At 
the glen the visitors are shown all the points of interest ; and 
then they may return by driving to the east, till the end of 
Excelsior lake is reached. Here the road turns off to the right, 
and follows the shore to Excelsior Park, and thence, via Spring 
Avenue and Circular Street, to Congress Park and Hall. 

The Spouting Springs. 

Stages run regularly to these springs ; but it is only a walk of 
a mile and a half, if one chooses to go afoot ; and in a private 
carriage it makes a pleasant trip. The best time to go is the 
latter part of the afternoon, as the Champion Spring gives its 
regular performance at five o'clock every day, except Sunday. 
From Congress Hall turn to the left, and follow South Broad- 
wir +o the third turn on the right, and enter Ballston Avenue. 
1 aireet leads to the south-west, diagonally from Broadway, 
and cannot be mistaken. After escaping from the houses, the 
road passes a small grove, and another Indian encampment, 
where the domestic squaw and the infantile papoose display as 
much of picturesque beauty as they can command, or sell such 
trinkets as their arts can make. Greater charms entice us on— 
the glass works and the great natural soda-fountain. The open 
fields that follow give a wide outlook over the country, and to 
the mountains on, either side. Yonder black pile of buildings 
to the right, and just beyond the railroad, are the glass-works 
of the Congress and Empire Spring Company. Here are made 
the millions of bottles used in Saratoga, to export its waters. 
The works belong to the Congress and Empire Company, but all 
the spring-water firms have more or less of their bottles made 

89 



8ABAT0GA ILLUSTRATED. 

hero. If one has time, it is well worth the while to turn asid. 
here, and look in upon the swarthy workers, dipping their long 
iron tubes into the white heat of the furnace, and drawing out 
the viscid mass, that, with dexterous toil and distended cheeks, 
they blow into good " pints " and " quarts." There is a strange 
fascination about glass-making, and, as this establishment stands 
»n the open fields, one may visit it without meeting the gloom 
and dusty heat of city works. 

Another grove invites us to walk along its shady edge, and 
splendid views of the Green Mountains open on the left, and 
then we come to the new village that has sprung up about the 
strange group of springs that have been here discovered. A 
number of rather startling signs point the way to the various 
springs, and, crossing the track, we find them all within a few 
rods of each other. At the top of the hill, near the railroad 
stands 

The Triton House. 

This summer hotel is most delightfully located, overlooking 
the two ponds, the water-fall, and the various springs. A depot 
is to be erected here, and the village made a regular stopping 
place on the road ; and, as the springs and the neighborhood are 
both attractive, the hotel will, no doubt, be liberally patronized. 
The house presents a neat and homelike appearance, and visitors 
will be sure to meet a hearty welcome. 

The Triton Spring 
Is in a small building just beyond the Triton House, and neat 

Gefser Lake. 
This sheet of water, on the right-hand side of the road, is 
opened freely, by its liberal owner, to such as care to row about 
along its placid waters, and among the little islands and shaded 
nooks that make the lake pretty and attractive. A sign informs 
the passing world of this privilege, with a caution to the voyagei 
not to "abuse it." From the Lake we pass on towards 

90 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Vichy Spring. 
This celebrated spring, poetically set in an iron fountain 
under a wooden canopy, on the west side of Geyser Lake, and 
just north of Ballston Avenue. There is a pretty lawn with a 
number of trees, and a picturesque farm-house on one side, and 
the placid little lake on the other, so that the surroundings are 
quite beautiful and attractive. 

The Geyser Spring 

Is easily found. It stands directly opposite the Lake, and a few 
rods from the road. It is in a large brick building below the 
falls, and the drive-way leads directly to the door. The grounds 
are neatly laid out ; and the beautiful waterfall, and the rapid 
stream, with its grassy and well shaded banks, dashing past the 
bottling house, combine to give the spring a very picturesque 
surroundings. Entering the building the visitor is court- 
eously shown the wonders of the place. In the center of the 
room is a well, about six feet square, and from the bottom 
rises an iron pipe, from which leaps, in fantastic dance, the 
creamy water of the spring. To allow it full play, there is an 
opening in the ceiling, and here it rises and falls, day and night, 
continually. At one side, a faucet, with a nose like a soda foun- 
tain, enables one to draw a glass. The water boils and bubbles 
out, mingled with bubbles of gas precisely like cream soda, 
and all who care may have a free drink. When the bubbles 
have escaped, the water has a wonderful pearly purity that tempts 
one to drink bountifully. A glass globe on the well-curb has a 
stream of water flowing through it and escaping at the top. 
This enables us to see the thick stream of bubbling gas as it 
rises through the water and makes an extremely pretty display. 
A large business is here carried on in bottling this valuable and 
delicious water, and vistors are politely shown all the processes 
in detail. 

Leaving the spring-house by the rear door, we enter the 
delightful landscape scenery around the spring, and follow a 
path down into the little dell where the stream flows on toward! 
the ravine. From the rustic bridge over the brook is a flood 

91 




Geyser Spring, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

view of the water-fall, and near it may be found a natural sol 
phur spring. Crossing the railroad embankment by a foot path 
we enter the romantic valley where stands 

The Champion. 
This remarkable spring is not protected by any building, ana 
its waters fall on the bare ground, mingle with some fresh watei 
springs, and flow away into the brook beyond. There is a small 
bottling house near by, and an old mill. These buildings are 
not permanent, and the rather wild glen is to be soon improved 
and laid out as a park. This does not make any special differ 
ence, as our interest is with the spring and its wonderful foun- 
tain. The water for drinking and bottling is drawn in the 
bottling house. It is a limpid, cold, and delightful drink, and 
every one should have at least a taste, fresh from the lower 
deeps of the earth. The hour has come for the usual daily per 
formance, and the place is crowded with carriages and pleasure 
parties, gathered to see the display. Two men come out anu 
take off the cap on the top of the upright iron pipe. At once 
the water leaps in a pure white column a hundred feet into the 
air, and falls in showers of glistening spray, presenting a 
brilliant spectacle of hydraulics, the like of which is not to be 
seen this side of the great Geysers of Iceland. 

Ballston Spa 
Is the county town of Saratoga county, and is seven miles south 
of Saratoga Springs. The drive is through Ballston Avenue, 
past Geyser Spring, following by the side of the railroad to 
Ballston village. It is a very pretty town of about 4,000 inhabi- 
tants, with beautifully-shaded streets and several objects of in- 
terest to the tourist. 

The village has long been celebrated for its mineral springs. 
The waters are quite similar in chemical properties to those of 
Saratoga, and are doubtless drawn from the same natural medici- 
nal reservoir. The principal springs already developed are the 
Ballston Artesian Lithia, Washington, Franklin, Sans Souci, and 
the new Corporation Spring. The Ballston Artesian Lithia 
Spring is the most celebrated, and its bottling-house is on tht 
Saratoga drive, at the north end of the village. 

93 



V} 








SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Lake Lonely. 

This email lake is not far from the village of Saratoga, and 
near Union Avenue. It is rather pretty and has a good echo on 
the eastern shore, but beyond this it has no special interest. 

Chapman's Hill. 

This makes a pleasant drive, and the view from the top is sale* 
to be very good. 

Wag-man's Hill 

Is more distant and higher, giving still more extended and strik- 
ing views. A number of mineral springs are here shown, one 
of which, charged with an inflammable gas, is very inter- 
esting. 

Wearing Hill. 

This is on the Mount Pleasant road, and makes a good all-day 
excursion. The ride is about fifteen miles, through a pleasant 
country, and the view from the top includes Ballston, Saratoga, 
Schenectady, Waterford, Mechanicsville, Schuylervil'le, Saratoga 
and Hound Lakes. 

The Prospect Hills of Greenfield. 

These hills are about 3| miles northwest of Saratoga Springs 
They are reached by the way of Waring Avenue west to Gran 
ger's four corners, thence north two miles ; or through Green 
field Avenue in a north-westerly direction to Locust-Grove Cor 
ners, thence north half a mile. The view of the Green Mount 
ains is very fine, and, to the south, the Helderberg Hills of 
Albany, and the Catskills beyond, fringe the horizon, while Sara- 
toga Springs is spread out like a map below. 

Corinth. 

Here are some bold falls on the upper Hudson. Th * carriage 
ride is fifteen miles. By the Adirondack Railway, the falls are 
reached from a station called Jessup's Landing. 

Luzerne. 
This pretty village, at the confluence of the Sacandaga and 
Hudson, is about twenty miles from the springs. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Burgoyne's Campaign and The Saratoga Battle Ground. 

(Condensed from Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth's History of 
Burgoyne's Campaign.) 

Few events in history are more intensely dramatic than th.i 
campaign of Burgoyne, in 1777, from Canada to Saratoga. 

Burgoyne had witnessed the battle of Bunker Hill, and had 
studied the war critically. He was commissioned to begin a cam- 
paign from Canada, and Sir William Howe was to cooperate from 
New York, and join him at Albany. St. Leger was designated 
to command an expedition from Lake Ontario through the 
Mohawk Valley to Albany. The great province of New York 
was thus threatened from three quarters. Burgoyne's army arid 
Indian allies concentrated at St. John's, Jane 12th, 1777, and 
moved southward through Lake Champlain with great pomp 
and splendor. The Indians led with their canoes, followed by 
the Royal Navy. Crown Point was reached, without opposition, 
on June 30th, 1777, and there Burgoyne issued his famous order : 
" This army must not retreat." 

Burgoyne's army of 10,000 invested Ticonderoga on July 5th. 
St. Clair was compelled to retreat, under cover of night, with his 
small army, up the lake to Schenesborough (Whitehall), and on 
to Fort Ann and Fort Edward, where he made a stand and was 
reinforced by General Schuyler. Here they stayed Burgoyne's 
advance by obstructirg the roads and stripping the country of 
forage. Schuyler then rell back to Stillwater. 

Burgoyne reached Fort Edward, July 13th, and found his 
perplexities increasing. He sent an expedition, August 13th, 
under Colonel Baum, to capture the American supplies stored at 
Bennington, Vt. Brave General Stark rallied the militia and 
checked Baum's advance six miles from Bennington. On the 
morning of the 16th, placing himself at the head of his column, 
Stark exclaimed : " There are the red-coats ; before night they 
must be ours, or Molly Stark's a widow " ! He charged upon the 
entrenchments of the enemy with great fury. The British fought 
bravely, but Baum was killed and his surviving troops were made 
prisoners. The British reinforcements escaped under cover of 
night, leaving baggage and artillery behind. This victory in- 
spired the Americans and disheartened the enemy. Baum was 
defeated and dead. St. Leger's Mohawk Valley Expedition had 
failed, and Burgoyne's army was in a crippled condition and in 

94 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

the midst of increasing dangers. But still Burgoyne said : 
" This army must not retreat," and pressed on towards Albany. 
General Gates had succeeded General Schuyler, and Kosciusko, 
the Polish engineer, had located a camp at Bemis Heights, four 
miles above Stillwater, where the Americans waited Burgoyne's 
approach. " Quietness and gloom hung about the heavy columns 
of his army. No drums were beat, or trumpets sounded ; mys- 
teriously, laboriously and persistently this strictly disciplined 
army was held to its course by the dogged determination and the 
impelling will of its commander." 

The Americans were entrenched on a spur of hills approaching 
the Hudson. Earthworks were thrown across the meadow to the 
river. The heights were to the north and west. Breastworks 
were projected in a semi-circle nearly a mile towards the north 
and redoubts established at intervals. September 19th Bur- 
goyne's army advanced. The left was commanded by Riedesel 
along the river. Frazer's division took the west and right and 
Burgoyne led the centre, his object being a union with Frazer's 
division in the rear of the American camp. The Americans 
charged the enemy with great impetuosity. The battle was 
fie.cely contested. The Americans often scattering before the 
British bayonets, and the British frequently fleeing from the 
Americans' deadly fire. At night the Americans retired into their 
camp. The British held the field with a barren victory. They 
were foiled in their main object, but convinced that those who 
fight for freedom and for country fight for victory or death. 
. Calm after storm followed ; and the two armies, skillfully en- 
trenched, lay face to face from Sept. 20th, to Oct. 7th— the 
Americans exultant, the British dejected. The former restful 
in their conscious strength ; the latter restless under impending 
disaster. The Americans had recaptured Ticonderoga and the 
Lake George garrisons. No aid came to Burgoyne from the 
Lower Hudson. October 17th Burgoyne attacked the American 
left with select troops, led in person by Riedesel, Frazer and 
Phillips. The Americans rushed furiously upon their adversaries, 
and so terrible was the onslaught that in less than twenty 
minutes "the flower of the army "• was completely routed. 
Burgoyne took command, and rushed into the thickest of the 
battle to rally his army ; but he could not check a hurricane, 

95 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The Americans swept on, like a resistless storm, and drove their 
enemies from the field. One of " the fifteen decisive battles of 
history " had been fought and American Independence assured. 

Burgoyne's army took refuge under the redoubts during the 
8th of October, and the day was spent in skirmishing. At nine 
o'clock of that same night, Burgoyne ordered a full retreat, and 
next day encamped his army on the heights above Schuylerville. 
He was followed by the Americans, surrounded and compelled to 
surrender. On the 17th of October, 1777, the British army 
marched out of their camps under their own officers and laid 
down their arms on the plain near old Fort Hardy, just above 
Schuylerville. Led by a guard bearing the stars and stripes and 
a band playing Yankee Doodle, the British army marched be- 
tween the files of their victors, and Burgoyne presented his 
sword to General Gates on " The Field of the Grounded Arms." 
The spot is now commemorated by a national monument. 
Memorial Tablets. 

Through the patriotic efforts of Mrs. Walworth, memorial tablets 
have been placed on the "Battle Grounds" to mark historic points. 

1. British line of Battle, Oct. 7, when first attacked by Morgan, 

Poor and Learned. 

2. Freeman's Cottage, and the Soldiers Well, where the most 

bloody encounter took place in both battles. 

3. Spot where Frazer fell. 

4. Bridge in Frazer's camp. March of the British center, Sept. 19. 

5. Burgoyne's headquarters. 

6. Balcarras Redoubt. 

7. Line of American Redoubts. 

8. Morgan's and Poor's Headquarters. 

9. Gates' Headquarters and Hospital. 

10. Site of Bemis' Tavern. 

11. American Redoubts near the river. 

12. Position of American artillery, October 8th. 

13. Taylor's House where Madame Riedesel saw Frazer's funeral. 

14. Spot where Frazer is buried. 

15. Sword's House. 

16. Point where Lady Ackland embarked. 

17. Breyman's camp-flank defense. Key to British position, cap- 

tured at sunset, Oct. 7th. Here Arnold was wounded. 
96 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

AMUSEMENTS. 

It may be said of Saratoga Springs that " its face is its for 
one." Eight months in the year it lives in fond recollections oi 
the last season, or in hopes of the next. June, July, August 
and September, it devotes to the solemn duty of entertaining its 
thousands of visitors. It may be a solemn thing for the natives, 
but for the visitors it is highly jolly. As its face is its fortune, 
the village, with great worldly wisdom, endeavors to wear as 
pretty a face as it can, and makes a special effort to entertain its 
company. The result is a gratifying success. 

The stranger, on arriving, at once asks for an "order of exei 
cises." What are the proper things to do ? how do you do them 
and what are the correct hours ? The programme has never been 
printed, and the best that can be done is to refer to the charms 
of the place, as set forth elsewhere, and let the intelligent visitor 
take his choice. 

The first and most proper thing to do is to get up and go out 
before breakfast for a drink of spring water. Of course, one has 
duly consulted an M. D. in regard to this matter, and settled be- 
forehand which spring is to be patronized. If this has been 
neglected, the chances are of receiving a vast amount of earnest 
and useless advice from innocents who have imbibed, and been 
cured of various prosaic complaints that they were heirs to from 
their youth up. The way these people rehearse their miseries, 
the touching tales they repeat of their disordered stomachs (as if 
any one cared for them), and the beautiful euthusiasm they dis- 
play concerning their wonderful cures, make one of the minor 
amusements of Saratoga Springs. It may be safely called 
an amusement, for to every one but themselves their case is more 
funny than sad, more ridiculout than pathetic. One must 



iJLBATOGA ILLUSTBATKD. 

be proof against these gratuitous advice-givers, and learn to lis 
ten to their tales of woe with amused resignation and heroic nog 
lect. Select your own spring, and never take the advice of any 
one, unless it be your wife or medical man. 

Determined to have a good time, the visitor no sooner escapes 
the advice of the good-natured incapables than he takes his pre- 
scribed glass, and, in a thankful frame of mind, turns to see the 
others drink. Their ways are various — very. Some imbibe vast 
gobletf uls with a heroic smile ; some sip from dainty cups, and 
try to make people think they like it — which isn't true. Other? 
simply drink, and drink, and drink, till the spectator is lost in 
wonder, love, and praise to think they do not explode like a de- 
fective soda-fountain. Some call it delicious ; others, horrid ; and 
some don't drink at all, being timid withal. No place in the 
world will so bring out the likes and dislikes, weaknesses and 
small vanities of people, as a Saratoga spring early in the 
morning. To stand on one side and see the performance, serves 
as an exhilarant, and will make one good-natured for half a day. 
This episode being over, one may return to the hotel for break ■ 
fast. By this time the morning meal acquires a wonderful inter 
est. The waters act as a splendid stimulant to the appetite, and 
one is inclined to be particularly courageous with knife and fork 
This, too, may be called part of the amusement programme, foi 
the filling of such a particularly fine multitude is a performance 
both entertaining and peculiar. When half a thousand people 
take coffee together, there is sure to be much that is original and 
amusing, and nowhere in the world are such gorgeous and mul- 
titudinous breakfasts served under one roof as at Saratoga 
Springs. Breakfast over, one may do as he pleases, with the 
most refreshing freedom — that is, if you are a man. If not, an 
Iron rule of conduct has been laid down for the ordering of your 
uprising and downsitting, goings out and comings in. This if 
the solemn formula announced by one of those awful authorities 
that rule the fashionable world. Every lady will read it with 
tears of gratitude when she thinks of the humiliating disaster 
its obedience will save her. 

" Eise and dress ; go down to the spring ; drink to the music 
cf the band ; walk around the park ; bow to gentlemen ; chat • 



SABA10GA ILLUSTRATED. 

little ; drink again ; breakfast ; see who comes in on the traia 
take a siesta; walk in the parlor ; bow to gentlemen ; have a lit 
tie small talk with gentlemen ; have some gossip with ladies 
dress for dinner; take dinner an hour and a half; sit in the 
grounds, and hear the music of the band ; ride to the lake ; see 
who comes by the evening train ; dress for tea ; get tea ; dress 
for the hop ; attend the hop ; chat a while in the parlors, and lis- 
ten to a song from some guest ; go to bed." 

The amount of wisdom involved in the above rules for con- 
duct while in Saratoga is immense. See what delights, what 
charms of social intercourse ; what heavenly pleasurings are 
spread before the lady visitor I Society is made for the young 
lady — and so is Saratoga. The sensible girl, the young woman 
with a mind of her own, laughs a scornful laugh at such folly, 
Und does as she pleases with young American independence. She 
listens to the band if she wants to ; she visits the Indians or the 
circular railway, or goes to Gridley's to fish the speckled trout 
m an arm chair, or she does what she likes, and does not go to 
bed at all if there is a ball going on. Put ten thousand well ed- 
ucated people, with nothing to do and great skill in doing it, in 
nalf-a-dozen houses not half-a-mile apart, and, in the nature of 
things, there are "good times" in abundance. Small need of 
such a silly programme as the above, while half the village 
stands ready to amuse the visitors and all the visitors stand ready 
to amuse themselves. There are walks and drives, music and 
dancing, parties both small and great, hops every night, and a 
grand ball every week. There are excursions in every direction, 
and fifty thousand well-dressed people to see in a week. The 
wealth, brains, and culture of the country meet at Saratoga 
Springs, and any one with a grain of common sense can find 
abundance to do, to see, and to admire. There is no lack of 
social intercourse of the most refined and cultivated kind, and 
*uch absurd directions for conduct as we have quoted would be 
uasulting were they not so wonderiully silly. 

For those who prefer muscular delights there are the numer 
dus bowling-places, where the festive ball and the animated 
nine-pins may be rolled and tumbled to one's heart's content 
These establishments are well arranged and admirably kept. 



UfC. 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Boat-Races, Base-Ball Matches, etc. 

Bowing Regattas are held at Saratoga annually, and embrace 
races between College crews and other amateurs as well as pro- 
fessional oarsmen. These usually begin in July, and occur at 
intervals during the season. 

Base-ball matches and foot-races are held every season, at Glen 
Mitchell, between the various colleges and other organizations. 
Military regiments also camp here every summer, and add new 
life and interest to the place. <«| 

The Horse Races 
Take place at the magnificent new race-course on Union Avenue, 
in July and August. They are usually arranged in two meetings 
— the first extending from about July 20th to August 5th ; the 
second meeting extends from about August 10th to August 21st. 
There are five or six racing-days in each meeting, and great in- 
terest is always manifested in them. The meetings are under 
the charge of the Saratoga Association, and everything is done to 
render the races agreeable and acceptable to the tens of thousands 
who witness them. The trots occur at the Glen Mitchell, usually 
on alternate days with the running-races at the race-course. 

To fishermen, who prefer the milder sports of the rod, there 
are admirable excursions over the Adirondack Railroad to the 
woods and mountains of the great Adirondack Park. 

An all-day's trip for ladies and children may be taken in the 
little steamers that make the tour of Saratoga Lake. The ride 
to the lake in the morning, and the sail to the White Sulphur 
Springs at the southern end of the lake 'Mid the ride homo in 
the afternoon, make a charming trip. 

100 



CHAPTER IX. 

EXCURSIONS. 

The summer visitor at Saratoga, who has become somewhat 
weary of the constant bustle and excitement of the fashionable 
world, often yearns for the green fields, the grand old mountains, 
the fragrant wildwoods, and the real picturesqueness of the 
country. It cannot be denied that Saratoga, so rich in its spas, 
and entertaining in its social amusements, is deficient in those 
natural attractions which constitute the charm of real country 
life. But within a few miles of the village are many interesting 
and beautiful places, which may be visited from Saratoga in one 
or two days' time. These excursions will afford very acceptable 
variety to Saratoga gayety, and the highest enjoyment of country 
life. The one route affording the greatest variety of really beau- 
tiful and romantic scenery, is the 

Adirondack Railroad. 

Beginning at Saratoga Springs, it runs in a northerly direction 
towards the great hunting and fishing grounds of Northern New 
York. The road is projected through the heart of the Great Wilder- 
ness to Ogdensburg, on the St. Lawrence River, and is intended to 
open up these vast wilds, of 150 miles diameter, to civilization, 
and the easy access of the tourist and hunter. It now runs to Lu- 
zerne, Hadley, Thurman, Riverside and North Creek, a distance 
of 57 miles from Saratoga Springs, forming the most direct rail- 
road route to the Valley of the Upper Hudson and the Wilder • 
ness. At Riverside stages connect, running to Chester, Potters 
ville, Steamers on Schroon Lake, and to the upper country. 
From North Creek stages run to Jackson's Blue Mountain Lake, 
and Cedar River Falls, the most desirable rendezvous and start- 
ing-point from which to reach Raquette Like and the heart of 
the Great Forest. Express trains leave Saratoga Springs on 
arrival of the morning trains from the Soath, connecting on 

1C1 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

return with the trains going South. Along and neai this road ar« 
some of the most romantic and charming spots to be found in thf 
world. We mention a few of these excursions, which will be 
found delightful, with a small company of congenial companions. 
Before starting, buy one of Taintor's Hudson River Guides, price 
95 cents, at the Saratoga book-store, which gives a map and de 
icription of villages and scenery. 

EXCURSIONS. 

No. 1.— To Jessup r s Landing, on the Hudson River, 17 milea 
from Saratoga, via Adirondack Railroad, at the edge of the wild 
and mountainous Adirondack region. Objects of interest — the 70 
feet falls in the Hudson, with the half-mile rapids above ; the 
frrand and beautiful mountain scenery, and the extensive manu- 
factory of the Hudson River Pulp Company for making pulp 
from wood, for the manufacture of paper. Dine at the hotel, and 
return to Saratoga by the afternoon train. 

No. 2 — To Luzerne, Warren County, N. Y., 22 miles from 
Saratoga, via Adirondack Railroad. Leave Saratoga on the 
morning train ; cross the Sacondaga River on the railroad bridge, 
450 feet long and 96 feet high. Visit the charming little village 
on the banks of the Hudson River, between the mountains on 
either side, 600 feet high ; the rapids and falls in the river ; the 
beautiful Lake Luzerne, affording fine trout -fishing or sailing. 
Dine at Butler's or Rockwell's hotel, both famous for their game 
dinners, and return in the afternoon of the same day, or the next 
day, as you choose, to Saratoga. 

No. 3 To Schroon Lake, Warren County, N. Y., via Adiron- 
dack Railroad, 50 miles, to Riverside, on the Hudson, thence by 
stage, 6 miles to Pottersville, foot of Schroon Lake. Steamboat 
excursion on the Lake ; Leland's or Windsor hotel ; Schroon Lake 
Village ; fine fishing or hunting ; charmingly-picturesque scenery. 
Remain over night at either of the good hotels — Windsor Hotel, 
Leland House, Ondawa House, or others. Return via same route 
to Saratoga next day or later. 

No. 4. — To Blue Mt. Lake and Cedar River Falls, Hamil- 
ton County, N. Y., via morning train on Adirondack Railroad to 
North Creek, 58 miles ; thence by stage, 20 miles, to Riley's, 
formerly Jackson's, via '* Fourteenth " " Indian River " ; thenor 

UJH 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

to Blue Mt. Lake, 10 miles from Jackson's, at evening of same 
day. Two or three good hotels and boarding houses in vicin- 
ity of Raquette Lake ; Moose Lake ; Mohican Lake ; Three 
Cedar Lakes ; Sumner Lake ; Shedd Lake ; Moose River, the 
finest trout fishing in the Adirondacks. The route to Cedar River 
Palls diverges from Jackson's via stage to Wakley's Hotel, Cedar 
River Falls, 12 miles distant. Return at leisure via same route. 

No. 5. — To Lake George, by morning train on Del. and Hud. 
Canal Co.'s R. R. to Whitehall, Ticonderoga, and Baldwin's; 
thence by steamer on Lake George to Fort William Henry Hotel; 
thence by railroad to Glen's Falls and Fort Edward ; back to 
Saratoga same day. This is the most delightful excursion that 
can be completed in one day from Saratoga. 

Or, via morning train on Delaware and Hudson Canal Co.'s 
Railroad to Fort Edward, Glen's Falls; thence by rail through 
wild and mountainous scenery to Lake George. On the same 
morning at 9, take steamer down Lake George to Baldwin's; 
thence by Delaware Hudson Canal Co.'s R.R. to Ticonderoga, 
Whitehall and Saratoga, arriving in time for supper. 

No. 6. — To Ballston Spa, 7 miles, via Delaware and Hudson 
Co.'s Railroad, or carriage. Visit the Artesian Lithia Spring, 
Sans Souci Boiling Spring, and others. Dine at Sans Souci Hotel, 
and return at 3 or 6 P.M., on same day. 

No. 7. — To Round Lake, via Delaware and Hudson Co.'s Rail 
road, 12 miles. National Camp Meeting Grounds of the Metho- 
dist Church, Round Lake. Return same day, at 3 or 6 p.m. 

No. 8 To Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., 22 miles, via 

morning train Delaware and Hudson Co. 's Railroad to Schenectady. 
Visit the college and city. Return, by 5 o'clock train, same day 
to Saratoga, via same route. 

No. 9. — To Hoosac Tunnel, Mass., via morning train on Dela 
ware and Hudson Canal Co.'s Railroad to Troy ; thence, via Troj 
and Boston Railroad to Hoosac Tunnel, 7 miles long. Remain 
over night at Ballou House. Return to Saratoga next day, vii 
lame route. 

No. 10. — To Saratoga Battle Grounds, 15 miles east of Sara 
103 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

toga Springs, by rail, private carriage or stage, to Bemis' Heights 
and Stillwater. Dine at Schuylerville, and return same day or 
next day, as you choose, or 

No. 11.— Saratoga Battle Grounds.— Take Boston, Hoosac 
Tunnel and Western Railroad, by way of Saratoga Lake, to 
Battle Ground Station. Return same day. 

No. 12. - Schuylerville, scene of Burgoyne's Surrender 
Take Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western R. R. to Schuylerville.. 
12 miles. Visit National Monument and ruins of old Fort 
Harding. Return same day. 

No. 13. — To Mt. McGregor, ten miles from Saratoga Springs. 
Take Mt. McGregor Railroad at Depot on North Broadway, near 
Waverly House. Trains run every hour. Dine at restaurant, 
top of Mt. McGregor, and return same afternoon or sooner. 

No. 14. — Manchester, Vt., via Rensselaer and Saratoga Rail- 
road to Rutland, on morning train ; thence, via Harlem Extension 
Railroad, to Manchester, Vt. Remain over night at Equinox 
House, and return next day by same route, or via North Benning- 
ton and Troy. 

104 




SARATOGA LAKE RAILWAY. 

SARATOGA LAKE, WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS HOTEL AND PARK, 
SCHUYLERVILLE AND SARATOGA BATTLE GROUNDS. 



This railroad was completed and opened to travel on the 1st 
of July, 1881. It has brought Saratoga Lake and some other of 
Saratoga's attractions within easy and comfortable access of 
visitors at a very small expense. Starting from Lake Avenue, 
one block east of the City Hall, the railroad runs along in front of 
the Magnetic, Seltzer, High Rock, Star, Empire and Red Springs, 
passing by the Loughberry Water Works, to Excelsior Spring, 
Eureka and White Sulphur Springs to Saratoga Lake, where it 
connects with Steamers for Riley's and the White Sulphur 
Springs Hotel and Park on the east side of the lake. Trains 
stop to dismiss and receive passengers at the Seltzer and High 
Rock Springs, the Star and Empire Spring, the Red Spring, the 
Excelsior and Union Springs, the Eureka and White Sulphur 
Springs and bath houses, and the Briggs House, Saratoga Lake. 
This arrangement affords easy and pleasurable accommodations 
for visiting these important springs without fatigue or exposure. 

At the lake connection is made with the new and beautiful 
iron steamer, "The Lady of the Lake." This elegant steamer 
has three decks and will carry 2,000 passengers. It was built by 
the railroad company in 1881, to carry their passengers up the 
lake to Riley's and the famous White Sulphur Springs and Park. 

The Boston Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railroad Company 
has constructed a line of railway from Saratoga Lake to its main 
line at Mechanicsville, N. Y. , and will run through trains from 
Boston and the east to Saratoga Springs. 

Local excursion trains will be run regularly during the summer 
season in connection with the boat, and all under one manage- 
ment. Excursion trains will also be run to and from Schuyler- 
ville, the scene of Burgoyne's surrender and the site of the 
National Monument, also to the station nearest the Saratoga 
Battle Grounds, now marked with " Memorial Tablets." 

Special moonlight excursions from Saratoga, to and through 
the Lake and return, will be arranged from time to time Trains 
run every hour regularly, and in connection with the boat. A 
round trip of 24 miles for 25 cents. 

105 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 



The excursion over the railway to the Briggfs House and over 
Saratoga Lake to the White Sulphur Springs and Park, is one of 
the most delightful that can be made from Saratoga. 




SARATOGA LAKE. 
From White Sulphur Springs Hotel and Park. Snake Hill in the distance. 

The White Sulphur Springs Hotel is elegantly fitted up, and 
has several private dining rooms for parties who desire to dine by 
themselves, and ample accommodations for regular guests. 

The grounds about the Hotel comprise over 100 acres of 
beautiful lawn, shaded by grand old forest trees among which 
are miles of walks and many charming retreats. 

Several pretty cottages are on the grounds and more are to be 
constructed. These are to be rented to persons either with or 
without board at the hotel. Elegant and commodious Bath 
Houses, offering superior facilities for Sulphur and Mineral 
Baths, both hot and cold, are connected with the Hotel. 

106 



mount McGregor. 

SARATOGA'S GREAT MOUNTAIN RESORT. 

connected with saratoga, by one of the best equipped 

railroads in the world. a thousand acre mountain 

park, ten miles north op and 1,000 feet above 

saratoga. hay fever and asthma unknown 

at mt. McGregor. 

Mount McGregor owes its summer resort popularity to Mr. Duncan 
McGregor. Some years ago, appreciating the advantages of this 
charming mountain, and foreseeing its popularity as a mountain 
annex for Saratoga's 200,000 annual visitors, Mr McGregor con- 
structed a carriage road up the mountain, and built a hotel on 
the summit and thus became the pioneer of this now famous 
mountain resort. Mt. McGregor has grown constantly in public 
favor. Notwithstanding its apparent inaccessibility, before the 
railroad was built, thousands visited it every year, and every 
visitor has become a traveling advertisement for this charming 
spot. Saratoga's most famous guests have driven over the long 
and tedious road with their elegant turnouts to enjoy the exhilar- 
ating atmosphere of Mount McGregor. Only one thing has been 
lacking to make it one of the most popular resorts in America, 
and that has been cheap, comfortable and quick transportation. 

The final development of this beautiful Adirondack Annex to 
Saratoga, was undertaken and accomplished by a remarkably enter- 
prising young man, Mr. W. J. Arkell, of Canajoharie, N. Y. To 
his artistic appreciation and resistless persistence is largely due 
the organization of the Saratoga, Mt. McGregor and Lake George 
Railway Co. The road was commenced in March, 1882, and com- 
pleted to the summit of Mt. McGregor the following June. 
Mt. McGregor and how to reach it. 

The rise of ground in Broadway, Saratoga, is the beginning 
of the Adirondack Range, gradually ascending toward the north. 
Mount McGregor is the first bold spur of the Adirondacks, rising 
a thousand feet above Saratoga, and only ten miles away. 

The Saratoga station, of the Mt. McGregor railway, is north of 
and adjoining the Waverly House on North Broadway. From 
this point the track runs parallel with the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Company's Railway, on the high bank above, and passing 
the Star, Empire, Red and " A" Springs on the right. 

108 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Near the water works, the road branches off to the left 
skirting along Loughberry Lake, leaving Excelsior Spring and 
Park on the right and passing Glen Mitchell on the east. From 
this point the road is nearly straight for six miles and almost on 
a level grade. Wilton, seven miles from Saratoga, is the only 
station along the route. Wilton village lies at the foot of Mount 
McGregor, and it is from this point that the ascent of the 
mountain properly begins. The road winds around the mountain, 
some four miles, in the form of a huge letter S, with a uniform 
grade of 212 feet per mile. The mountain station is on the 
summit and only a few steps from the hotel and restaurant. The 
equipment of the road is most complete. The locomotives and 
coaches have been made with exceptional care, skill and taste. 
The coaches are finished in mahogany, with large adjustable 
windows to afford opportunity to see the mountain views. 

The wild and magnificent scenery along the mountain road can 
not be described. It must be seen to be appreciated. You are 
constantly startled with the sudden changes. Every turn is a 
surprise. All the senses and emotions are called into play in an 
incredibly short time. Now your poetic soul is fired with a fifty 
mile landscape spread out before you, but your ecstasy is sudden- 
ly broken, as the train dashes through a rocky cut, and scarcely 
has the cavernous roar died away before you are gazing timidly 
from some giddy trestle into a yawning chasm, and involuntarily 
reviewing the past and contemplating " the sweet bye and bye." 
On, on we go and "the tireless horse" easily climbs the iron 
road. We turn sharply around the mountain, and in a moment 
we are seemingly buried in a primeval forest. W T e soon emerge, 
/ and as we near the top we see through extended vistas into 
broad valleys below, and over boundless landscapes beyond. 

We have been charmed with the trip and find ourselves pre- 
pared to appreciate the summit views of Mount McGregor. 

Far away to the north and north-west the far famed Adiron- 
dacks lean against the sky, with pinnacles towering, king- 
like, above. Prospect mountain in the north and French 
mountain in the north-east, define the gigantic water-sheds of the 
delicate Lake George. The beautiful Hudson forms a crescent 
only two miles below us and meanders away to the north-east. 

109 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

Glen's Falls, Sandy Hill and Fort Edward are seen distinctly in 
the north-east, while beyond, the Green Mountains of Vermont 
and the blue outlines of the New Hampshire Hills serve as a 
background for one of the finest landscapes in America. 

" True 'tis a scene of loveliness. 
Below you are fields of waving grain, and pastures and lazy herds; 
about you are wild flowers and murmuring pines. 
" Your thoughts are wandering up, 
Far up the streams of time ; 
And long slept recollections of old tales, 
Are rushing on your memory as ye breathe, 
That valleys storied name, 
Field of the Grounded Arms " ! 

It is Schuylerville and the Saratoga Battle ground, miles away, 
but visible in the south-east, that have stirred the memories of 
history. Bemis Heights, where was fought the first great de- 
cisive battle in the war that made us a nation. Schuylerville, 
the scene of Burgoyne's surrender, now commemorated by a 
national monument. Saratoga Lake and Snake Hill add much 
to the picturesque view before us. The hotel towers of Saratoga 
remind one of the gayeties of the great American Spa and the 
numerous Saratoga attractions that can be reached from Mfc. 
McGregor in half an hour. The world renowned Catskills com- 
plete the great panorama before us, and as we enjoy the exhila- 
rating atmosphere of McGregor's lofty mountain, we wonder why 
all Saratoga visitors have not been brought here before. 

Some one has said: "see Italy and die;" but those who see 
Mount McGregor say : ' ' See Mount McGregor and live, live to 
see and enjoy it from year to year. Renovate your system at the 
Saratoga Springs, but renew your youth at Mount McGregor," it 
is the "Great Eldorado of the North." 

The Mount McGregor Railway Company has absolute control 
of one thousand acres on this mountain, which will eventually be 
one of the grandest mountain parks in the world. In this park 
are two natural mountain lakes, Lake Anna and Lake Bonita. 
These lakes are stocked with fish and easily reached by carriage 
roads. There are miles of pleasant drives over easy grades. 

. no 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

A popular feature of this resort will be a series of family cot- 
tages in connection with a large hotel now being built. An ample 
supply of pure water is furnished from a deep artesian well. The 
view from a look-out tower commands a wide range of the upper 
Hudson. There is also a western outlook from Mt. McGregor 
towards Jessup's Landing, Luzerne and the Adirondacks proper, 
affording a fine view of the Hudson. 

Mt. McGregor Restaurant and Cafe. 

A large restaurant has been erected on Overlook Point, built 
after the Manhattan Beach style, with windows extending to the 
floor, easily opened or closed as occasion demands. Family and 
party tables are provided. A wide piazza extends on three sides of 
the Restaurant affording ample opportunity to enjoy the scenery 
and cool breezes. The Restaurant is in the hands of experienced 
management and the public will be served in a first-class manner. 

The Mount McGregor Railway is particularly a pleasure road, 
controlled by the company, and trains will be run to accommo- 
date the public, at all reasonable hours. Visitors to Saratoga 
should not fail to spend a few days at Mt. McGregor. 

Mt. McGregor is highly recommended for persons suffering from 
bay -fever and asthma, 

• 

Mt. McGregor Gallery of American Art. 

For the purpose of adding the best representations of American 
Art to the many beauties of Nature on this mountain, the Mt. 
McGregor Art Association has been established here with a perma- 
nent endowment fund. A permanent gallery has been erected and 
already contains more than a hundred of the best oil paintings 
executed by the best American artists. The object of this asso- 
ciation is the promotion of American Art. The productions of 
American artists only will be exhibited here. A nominal admis- 
sion fee is charged for the purpose only of defraying incidental ex- 
penses. Lovers of Art should not fail to visit this remarkable col- 
lection. 

Ill 




CHAPTEB X. 

COMMERCIAL INTERESTS. 

The most prominent features of business in Saratoga are th« 
oottling and selling of the mineral waters, and the entertainment 
of summer visitors. These two pursuits have absorbed a vast 
amount of capital, and some of Saratoga's most enterprising citi- 
zens are engaged in these occupations. The several springs are 
owned by different stock companies or private interests, and the 
amount of capital invested in each varies from $5,000 to $1,000,- 
000. Many of the springs are very valuable, both for the amount 
expended in developing them, and the large amount of valuable 
mineral water they produce. To place these waters in all the 
leading cities of the United States, and the world, has required 
the greatest energy and business skill, and the substantial 
results obtained in this field are a creditable testimony to the 
managers of this important work. The task of providing bed 
and board for the hundred thousand people who annually cornr 
here is enormous. No one who has visited Saratoga in July or 
August, and seen the bustle of the great hotels, as each train 
brings hundreds of new arrivals, can fail to be impressed with 
the magnitude the hotel business has attained at this place. The 
palatial buildings, the exquisite decorations and furnishing, 
the bountiful tables loaded with delicacies and luxuries, the lav 
Uhness expended for the entertainment of guests, have involved 
immense capital, and require more than ordinary supervision. 
But, besides the spring and hotel interests, and the general bus! 
ness of entertaining, there is a large mercantile interest, and Sara- 
toga boasts of many stores of considerable size, well-stocked with 
such goods as the visitors and residents require. They are 
situated mostly on Broadway, between Congress Street and the 
Town Hall, and present very attractive windows, as one strolls 

112 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

along the street and indulges in a little sight-seeing. The vari- 
ety and quality of goods offered by Saratoga merchants is quite 
as good as will be found in cities of much larger population. 

The Saratoga Book-Store. 

One of the attractions of Saratoga is the book-store of E. R. 
Stevens, one door north of Congress Hall, on the corner of Broad- 
way and Spring Street. Mr. Stevens keeps a large supply of 
novels, books of travel, science, etc., and a large assortment of 
guide-books, including Saratoga Illustrated, stereoscopic views 
of Saratoga and Lake George. Fine English and French note- 
paper and initial stationery are a specialty with him. Quite an 
important feature of this store is its circulating library, of some 
800 volumes of the most valuable and popular books of the day, 
which are loaned for a small compensation. The store is near all 
the leading hotels, and guests will find much to interest them by 
dropping in frequently to this attractive book- store. Mr. Stevens 
will obtain, in a day or two, any publication ordered, if not already 
in stock. 

Penfield's New Book-Store. 

C. P. Penfield's new place of business, at 336 Broadway, oppo- 
site Grand Union Hotel, is a very neat and attractive book and 
stationery store. He keeps the latest editions of books, maga- 
zines, guide-books of American routes, stereoscopic views of Lake 
George and Saratoga, pocket cutlery, pocket-books, and is pre- 
pared to supply all books in a day or two if not found on hia 
shelves. He is very polite and popular, and visitors are afforded 
ample opportunity to examine, and given ail needed information 
respecting the latest publications. 

Arcade News-Room. 
Mr. Bernard Brunner has established a news-room, opening 
just off the lobby of the Post-Office, in the Arcade. It may alsc 
be entered from Phila. Street. He makes a specialty of news- 
papers, magazines, guide-books, stationery, games, croquet sets, 
etc., and all articles commonly found in news-rooms. He ia 
prompt, and will procure, at shortest notice, any news publica- 
tion desired, if not found on hand at his news-room. 

113 






SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

W. H. Baker, Photographer, 
Has opened one of the finest photograph galleries, at 448 Broad- 
way, that can be found in the State of New York. It is a 
Ground Floor Gallery, and is fitted up with handsome carpets, 
easy chairs, and piano, and its walls are adorned with beautiful 
pictures of various styles of art. He is one of the most extensive 
photographers in Northern New York, and makes photographs 
from miniature to life-size, and finishes them in Crayon, Oil, 
Water Colors or India Ink. The "quick as a wink" process of 
photographing has been ndopted. Try him for a picture while at 
your leisure in Saratoga. He keeps a very large assortment of 
stereoscopic views, albums, frames and mats, which he sells at 
very reasonable prices. He is always pleased to have visitors call 
at his gallery, and is very polite in exhibiting a full assortment of 
beautiful pictures. 

Asa Rix's New York Store, 
At No. 460 Broadway, is the Original New York Store, "open 
the year round." Here you will find novelties in millinery, laces, 
fancy-goods, hosiery, switches, braids, jewelry, gents' furnishing 
goods, etc. Mr. Rix is well known for his fair dealing, not only 
to " Saratogians," but to all New York, and his store is crowded 
with visitors from the hotels and boarding-houses during the 
summer. He employs only the best milliners and sales-ladies, 
and in prices will compete with any New York house. The qual - 
ity and style of his stock is excellent, and the variety is fully 
equal to the demands of the summer trade at this fashionable 
watering-place or in the metropolitan cities. Gash and one price 
only. (See Adv. in this Guide-Book.) 

The Daily Papers. 

Visitors will find the morning "Daily Saratogian " and the 
" Saratoga Daily Journal " almost indispensable, if they wish to 
know what is going on in town. Both are live, spicy journals 
edited by good writers, and published in neat style, often illus- 
trated, and give the programme of each day's entertainments, 
and the arrivals on the previous day at the hotels, in each 
morning's issue. The telegraphic columns have the latest news. 

115 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

The National Express Company 

Has a handsome package and money office under the United 
States Hotel, and a merchandise office at the railroad depot. It is 
the only company of general express forwarders to Saratoga, 
Northern New York, and Vermont. It receives trunks and parcels 
at Saratoga, to be sent to any part of the United States and Can- 
ada, and is prompt in attending to orders left at its office at the 
railroad depot in Saratoga, or at any of its offices in New York. 
Art Exchange and Art School. 

Mrs. H. W. Slocum has established, in connection with Congress 
Park Place on South Broadway, ' ' the New York and Saratoga Art 
Store, Gallery, and School of Decorative Art." Persons wishing 
to employ their leisure hours profitably in Saratoga will find the 
best of instruction here in oil and tapestry painting, also model- 
ing on wood, terra cotta and plush in Samuel's new patent process. 
Although this is the first year of this institution its success is 
already assured. There has been and is a demand for just such 
an Exchange in Saratoga, and it will become a ifavorite resort for 
all lovers of Art. 

Saratoga Gallery of Fine Arts. 

It is not strange that works of art are being added to Saratoga 
every year, for thousands of the most refined and art-appreciative 
people in the country annually congregate at this greatest of Amer- 
ican watering places. Realizing these facts, a liberal gentleman 
of St. Louis has erected, at considerable expense, a permanent fire" 
proof " Gallery of Fine Arts "on South Broadway, opposite the 
Windsor, Clarendon and Columbian hotels. This Gallery will be 
open from June to October at a very moderate admission fee. 
The collection of paintings to be seen here is one of the most re- 
markable and expensive to be found anywhere outside of the large 
galleries of Europe. The opportunity to see the masterpieces of 
some of the worlds' most famous artists is brought within the 
reach of the public at a trifling expense. Here is an opportunity 
to see the productions of some of the most celebrated foreign ar- 
tists while the best works of American artists may be seen at the 
Mt. McGregor Gallery. 

(For partial lists of works in the Saratoga Gallery see advertisement in this book./ 

110 




CHAMPION SPOUTING SPRING IN WINTER. 




1 J' fl 



CHAPTER XI. 

HISTORY OF SARATOGA SPRINGS. 

The name of Saratoga is derived from an old Indian nam*, 
Se-rac7t-ta-gue — meaning the hillside country of the great riiwr—- 
and referred to that tract of land lying six miles back on eithei 
Bide of the Hudson, and fifteen miles in length, embracing the 
present townships of Saratoga and Stillwater on the west, and 
Easton on the east side of the Hudson River. This tract wag 
deeded by the Indians, in 1684, to Peter Philip Schuyler and six 
other citizens of Albany. It extended, as described in the Letters 
Patent, from Di-on-on-da-ho-wa, now the Batten Kill, to Then 
en-do-ho-wa, now the Anthony Kill, near Mechanicsville, on both 
sides of the Co-ho-ta-te-a, now Hudson River. The tract embra- 
cing the present springs was called by the Indians, Kay-ad-ro* 
te-ra — the lake country — and was a favorite hunting ground 
whose name is now retained for the large stream flowing through 
the county and emptying into the Hudson at Mechanicsville. 

When the mineral springs were first discovered by the whites, 
they unwittingly called them " The Springs near Saratoga," 
though situated several miles away from the real Se-rach-ta-gue, 
in another hunting ground ; and thus the less distinguished 
robbed the more noted of its name and fame. 

" Ye say they all have passed away, 
That noble race and brave , 
That their light canoes have vanish'd 

From off the crested wave ; 
That 'mid the forest where they roam'd 

There rings no hunter's shout : 
But their name i8 on your wa&ert, 
Ye may not wash it out." 
117 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

In the year 1703, one Rip Van Dam and twelve associates took 
of the Mohawk chiefs, an Indian deed of Kay ad-rosse-va. I 
was not until 1768 that the deed, through the powerful influence 
of Si: William Johnson was confirmed by the tribe. The chiefs 
•aid they were toid by the agents of the purchasers, that the 
iescription in the deed only covered " land enough for a good 
4lzed farm," and that they never intended by it to convey to the 
whites, " for a few baubles," their great hunting ground contain- 
ing half a million acres. But after more than sixty years oi 
fruitless quarrels over this old title, the Indians had grown weak 
and the whites had grown strong, and it is the old story — the 
weaker gave up to the stronger. In 1770 the tract was surveyed 
into allotments, and divided among the proprietors and their 
heirs. Lot No. 12 of the sixteenth allotment, on which the vil- 
lage of Saratoga Springs now stands, fell to the lot of Rip Van 
Dam. He was the first white man that owned the Springs of 
Saratoga, and he owned them all without even knowing it. 

The Indians, never having troubled themselves with the trials 
of getting an education, kept no record of the early history of 
the Springs at Saratoga. At least one spring had a prehistoric 
existence. The bear, the deer, the wolf, and moose, were the 
original patrons of High Rock Spring. In their eagerness to 
drink the saline waters, they gathered round this " big salt 
lick " in great numbers, and were often shot by the Indians 
while drinking. The Indians said that the water took away all 
fear of man, and that the timid deer suffered death rather than 
forego the salty waters that flowed over the top of the mound- 
like rock 

The Indians themselves used the waters freely, and regarded 
•the spot as a " medicine spring" that was the direct gift of the 
Great Spirit for the healing of their nations. The first white 
man who visited Saratoga Springs, says Sir WilHam Johnson, 
was a sick French officer whom an Indian chief brought from 
Fort Carrilon to be benefited by the waters. The next, it is be- 
lieved, was Sir William himself, who came there in August, 1761 
ten years before Dirck Scoughten built his pioneer hotel upon 
the bluff near by. His faithful Mohawks brought him through 
the woods from Schenectady, by the way of Ballston Lake, to the 

118 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

High Rock Spring. Scoughten's route to the springs was from 
the Hudson to the east side of Saratoga Lake, thence acrces th« 
Lake in a bark canoe to the mouth of the Kayadarosseras River, 
thence up the river two miles to an Indian trail that led to the 
springs. In 1783, Gen'l P. Schuyler cut a road through the 
woods from his mills at the mouth of Fish Creek to the springs 
and built a summer-house which he occupied every summer with 
his family during the rest of his life. 

Around those old fountains of Kay-ad-ros-sc-ra, so often sur- 
rounded with the rude wigwams of the savages, the new Sara- 
toga has sprung up in all the pride and splendor of modern 
civilization. It has been but a hundred years in building. In 
the year 1774 the first rude hotel was opened for the entertain- 
ment of visitors, by John Arnold, of Rhode Island. He occu- 
pied the house built a year or two before by Dirck Scoughten, 
upon the bluff west of and near the High Rock Spring. Scough- 
ten had made a little clearing, planted some potatoes, and put 
up and partly furnished a log house, when he quarreled with 
the Indians and they drove him away. This pioneer hotel had 
but a single room or two on the ground floor, with a chamber 
overhead. In sight of it were sixteen Indian cabins filled with 
their savage occupants. In the rocky ledges near by, there were 
numerous dens of rattlesnakes. There were, so many of these 
reptiles then at the springs, that the early visitors often had to 
hang their beds from the limbs of the trees to avoid them. 
Nightly, the wolves howled and the panther screamed ; daily, the 
black bears picked berries in the little clearings, and the wild 
deer and the moose drank from the brook, while the eagle yearly 
built her nest on the top of the towering pines. 

Such was the style, and such were the surroundings of the 
5rst rough hotel of the wilderness springs of a hundred years 
Ago, that led the way in the long line of magnificent structures 
that have since graced the village. 

The individual springs were discovered at various times ; some 
by mere accident, and some by careful scientific search. The old 
est of all is the High Rock Spring. It was known to the In 
flians for a long time before the whites appeared. Its actual age 
ts uncertain, as the Indian accounts of it were mere tradition* 

111) 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

and legends. The pile of calcareous tufa heaped about thf 
mouth of the spring grew by imperceptible layers, perhaps not 
an inch in a hundred years, and it is now three and one-half feel 
high ; so that its age vies with that of the geological period in 
which we live, and it may be vaguely guessed at thousands of 
years. For a long time, however, before Sir William's visit, it 
had ceased to flow over the top, and had found some other out 
let. According to an old Indian legend, while it was still flow- 
ing over the top, some squaws once bathed their sooty faces in it, 
and the offended waters, shrinking from their polluting touch, 
sank down in shame into the bosom of the rock, and never after 
wards were seen to flow over its surface. 

The spring was purchased by Messrs. Ainsworth & McCaffrey 
in 1865, and in experimenting upon it the firm found that the 
mound of stone had no connection with the bed rock below. In 
the black soil below it was found the decayed trunk of a pine, 
its upper side well worn, as if long- forgotten footsteps had worn 
it smooth in seeking the spring. Below this were marks of an- 
cient fires, and two distinct layers of tufa and meadow muck ; so 
that the spring may have been in existence long before the pres- 
ent slow-growing rock was formed, and its origin is placed still 
further back in the total obscurity of prehistoric time. The 
tubing was finished in August, 1866, and from that time to this 
the water has flowed out in exhaustless abundance. 

Congress Spring was first discovered in 1792. In the summer 
of that year, Gov. John Taylor Gilman of New Hampshire wai 
staying at the little log tavern that was built by Dirck Scoughten, 
eight years before, near the High Rock Spring. It was kept by 
Benjamin Risley, who came from Vermont. Gov. Gilman had 
long been connected with public affairs, and was the popular 
leader of the Federal party in his native State. He had served 
with honor in the Provincial forces in the war of the Revolution, 
had been a delegate in the Continental Congress for two years, 
and was at this time State Treasurer, and from 1794 was for 
eievtn years Governor of the State. Upon a pleasant afternoon 
in August, he took his gun and strolled up the little creek that 
runs past the High Rock Spring, in search of game. Saratoga 
was then all a wilderness, excepting the little clearing around 

120 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

the tavern, and two or three others in the vicir .ty. He followed 
up the little brook, as it ran through the tangled swamp, until 
he came to a branch that entered it from the west. This branch 
then took its rise in a clear spring that ran out of the sand bank 
near where the Clarendon Hotel now stands. Running acrosff 
Broadway, then an Indian trail, a little north fcrly of the Wash 
iagton Spring, it emptied into the main brook in what is no\* 
Congress Street, just below the Congress Spring. A few yards 
above the mouth of the branch was a little cascade. Below the 
cascade, the rock rose abruptly two or three feet above the level 
of its bed. Out of this rocky bank, at the foot of the cascade, a 
little jet of sparkling water, not larger than a pipe stem, spirted 
and fell into the water of the stream. Struck by its singular ap- 
pearance, Gilman stopped to examine it. It tasted not unlike the 
water of the High Rock Spring that was already so famous. The 
truth flashed upon his mind in an instant. He had found a new 
mineral spring. 

Hastening back to his boarding place, Gilman made known his 
discovery. Every person in the settlement was soon at the foot 
af that little cascade in the deep, wild woods, wondering at the 
curious spectacle. There was Risley and his family, of the 
Scoughten House. There was Alexander Bryant, the patriot 
scout of the Revolution, who kept the only rival tavern — a log 
one near by Risley's. There was Gen. Schuyler, who had, just 
ten years before, cut a road through the woods from his mills 
near the mouth of Fish Creek to the Springs ; and Gideon Put- 
nam, the founder of the lower village ; and Gilman's brother, and 
a few more guests who were at the little log tavern. And there, 
too, was Indian Joe, from his clearing on the hill, near where the 
Clarendon now is, and some of his swarthy brethren, from their 
huts near the High Rock, wondering at the strange commotion 
among the pale faces, at the little waterfall in the brook. And 
vhey all, gathering around it, each in turn tasted the water of ih« 
newly-found fountain, and, pronouncing it of superior quant* 
they named it then and there the Congress Spring, out of com- 
pliment to its distinguished discoverer, and in honor of the old 
Continental Congress of which he had been a member. 

For many yoars afterwards the water was caught in glasses a* 
121 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATE^. 

It ran from the rock. In attempting to increase its capacity by 
removing a part of the rock the spring was lost. But bubbles oi 
gas were noticed in the bed of the creek near by, and, turning th* 
creek one side, excavations were made in its bed. The spring 
was found and tubed, and has since become world renowned. 

Columbian Spring was first tubed by Gideon Putnam in 1805. 
The Ten Springs, near the present Excelsior Spring, were dis- 
covered in 1814,' and the Washington was tubed in 1806. The 
Pavilion and Empire Springs were brought into notice in 1838 
and 1848. The Geyser group of springs were obtained by boring, 
and they are comparatively recent. Some of the other springs 
were known for a long time, but have been only recently devel- 
oped. So it seems that these remarkable mineral fountains are 
very old, in one sense, and quite new in another. The hidden 
Bources of the waters, and at least one of the escapes at the sur- 
face, are very ancient. The tubing and the later boring are 
comparatively a matter of our own times. 

The first critical and scientific examination of the waters was 
made by Dr. Valentine Seaman, of New York, in 1797 ; and the 
first large hotel was opened in 1803, by Mr. Gideon Putnam. It 
was called the Union Hotel, and for a bush hung out a rude pic- 
ture of " Old Put and the Wolf." The village then consisted of 
a few log cabins, and the visitors were all invalids. In time, the 
fame of the cures increased, and the village spread its borders 
through the wilderness, and began to take on its present rather 
gorgeous apparel. 

Saratoga has, at times, been visited with disastrous conflagra- 
tions, which have swept away, in an hour, some of the magnifi- 
cent hotels of the town. The first of these, of late date, was in 
1865, when the old United States and Marvin Hotels were con- 
sumed. They occupied the ground on which the new United 
States Hotel now stands The Marvin House was rebuilt on its 
present site in 1869. The United States was rebuilt in its 
enlarged and present colossal proportions in 1874, and in Jun« 
of that year it was opened to summer visitors. The money for 
building it wab raised by the sale of bonds, and the enormoui 
■am of $1,000,000 was expended in its construction. The oM 
Congress Hall was destroyed by fire in 1866. The present Con 

122 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

press Hall was built upon the same ground in 1868, at a cost 01 
$800,000, raised by bonds bought by the citizens and others who 
same forward to assist Mr. Hathorn in repairing the great loss t» 
the town, and replacing it with the present beautiful structure. 

The Crescent, Park Place, and Columbian Hotels, extending 
from Congress Street, on the west side of Broadway, to the 
gTounds of the Clarendon Hotel, were burned, in one confla- 
gration, in the fall of 1871. The Columbian was rebuilt and re 
opened in 1872, and the Park Place and Crescent Hotels were re 
placed in 1872 by the Grand Hotel, which covered all the ground 
occupied by the two, with very considerable extensions. The 
Grand Hotel had a short career, for, on the 1st day of October, 
1874, it was obliterated by a sweeping fire that leveled it with the 
ground. It has not yet been rebuilt, but the vacant lot and ruins 
on Broadway, corner of Congress Street, still perpetuate its 
memory. The Grand Union has been more fortunate than its 
rivals, and has gradually assumed its present ornamental and 
extensive appearance, by various enlargements and reconstruc- 
tions, the last one being the rebuilding of the north wing in the 
spring of 1875. 

Saratoga County was formed from a part of Albany in Febru- 
ary, 1791. The first settlements were made by the Dutch, a few 
years after their arrival in this country. The county, lying on 
the natural route between the settlements on the Hudson and the 
French towns in Canada, naturally became the scene of much oi 
the fighting in the early wars between the English and French. 
After the conquest of Canada, in 1760, the settlements extended 
rapidly northward, and, by the time of the Revolution, the coun 
ty had become well filled. During that war, Burgoyne's surren- 
der, and the events that preceded it, made the county famous 
in our history. The British forces ravaged the entire county, 
and caused its almost entire depopulation, but the people finally 
captured the entire English army. 

Saratoga Springs, with which we are more particularly inter 
ested, was formed from Saratoga Township in April, 1819, and it 
was made a post town in 1826. In 1831 a subscription was 
raised to build a railroad from Schenectady, and it was thought 
• great thing that the traveler could go to the Springs from New 

123 



SARATOGA ILLUSTRATED. 

fork at the breathless speed of fifteen miles an hour. Fron 
that time Saratoga Springs has grown rapidly, and with more oj 
lees steadiness. It has had its ups and downs, its fires and hote" 
openings, its dull times and its periods of wonderful prosperity. 
To-day it has a permanent population of 11,000, and offers more 
attractions than ever. Within the year it has added to its hot* 
facilities, its social advantages, and its sanitary conveniences 
Houses and villas are springing up in its new streets. Bettei 
"oads and drives are extending in every direction. Its races and 
regattas have become established institutions of the pleasure- 
peeking season. Its springs flow in greater abundance than ever, 
and in all their abundance there is no decline in their invaluable 
medical properties. The invalid, the fashionable woman, th« 
idler, and the busy city man, may here find, each in their way 
■nmething to please and gratify, and none need depart saying 
that aught is wanting that could contribute to his comfort 01 
happiness. 1 24 

TAKE A LOOK AT THE 

NEW BOOK STORE, 

C P. PENFIELD, 
336 Broadway, Saratoga Springs, 

Opposite Grand Union Motet. 

FINE STATIONERY, 

INCLUDING THE BE8T 

English, French & American Writing Papers 

AT LATEST PRICES. 

BLANK BOOKS, CUTLERY, RUSSIA LEATHER GOODS, STEREO- 
SCOPIC VIEWS OF SARATOGA AND LAKE GEORGE, SCRAP 
BOOK PICTURES, TAINTOR'S SARATOGA GUIDES. 



If you are in search of the latest publications % go to Pcnfleld 1 * Book Start 



ARCADE NEWS ROOM 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y. 



B. BRUNNElt, - Proprietor. 



Situated in the Arcade in the Lobby of the Post Office, with 
an entrance from Phila Street. 



DAILY AND WEEKLY NEW YORK, ALBANY, TROY AND 
SARATOGA NEWSPAPERS BY EARLIEST TRAINS. 



Magazines, Guide-Books and Stationery a Specialty. 



ALL OTHER ARTICLES USUALLY FOUND IN NEWS ROOMS. 

COLUMBIA BICYCLES 

And TRICYCLES. 

THE POPULAR STEEDS 

For Business and. Pleasure. 



Send Stamp for Illustrated (36-page) Catalogue. 



THE POPE M'FG CO., 

597 Washington St., Boston, Mass, 

BRANCH HOUSE: 

13 WARREN ST., NEW YORK. 




Saratoga Gallery of Fine Arts, 

South Broadway, opposite Windsor Clarendon, and 
Columbian Hotels. 



Open from June 15th to Oct. 1st. 



Now on exhibition Henri Regnault's "AntSmedon with 
the Horses of Achilles;" Peali's "Court of Death;" Muson's 
"Flight into Egypt;" Bertrand's " Virginia;" Jourdan's 
"Ledaandthe Swan ;" Toudouze's "Plage d' Sport;" Cab- 
anel's " Eve ;" Lentze's " Lafayette in Prison" and superb 
works by Lefebore, Corat, Courbet, Daubigny, Vibut, Morris, 
DeBeaumont, Laudelle, Rico, Selvie, Palraaroli, Perrault, 
Luminais, Claivin, Alvarez, Rossi, Simonetti, Jacquet, Pallet, 
etc., etc. 



SARATOGA REAL ESTATE OFFICE, 

No. 6 Arcade (Post Office). 

J. IE*. CONIvI^HNTG-. R. F. KJNT^JPIP 



Do you want to hire a furnished house for the season? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to rent a furnished house for the season ? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to buy a building site? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to sell a vacant lot? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to buy a house and lot for from $1,000 to $40,00 > ? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to sell your house and lot? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to buy or sell a farm ? 

CALL AND SEE US. 
Do you want to loan money on bond and mortgage ? 

CALL AND SEE US. 



HUDSON RIVER BY DAYLIGHT. 

NEW YORK AND ALBANY 

DAY LINE STEAMERS 

"ALBANY" and "C. VIBBARD," 

Leave New York, Vestry St., Pier 39, N. R. (adjoining Jersey City 
Ferry), 8.35 a.m., and foot 22d St., N. R , 9 a.m., landing at Nyack 
and Tarrytown, West Point, Newburgh, Poughkeepsie, Rhinebeck, 
Catskiil and Hudson. Returning, leave Albany, 8.30 A.M., from 
foot of Hamilton St. , connecting in New York with trains for Phila* 
delphia, South and East. 

CHOICE OF TWO ROUTES 

TO THE 

RESORTS O F THE C ATSKILLS. 

CONNECTIONS. 

BROOKLYN— Annex leaves Fulton Street at 8.00 A.M. Leaves 
Vestry Street Pier on arrival of down boat. 

WEST POINT— With Stages for Cranston's and West Point 

Hotels. 
POUGHKEEPSIE— With Stages for Lake Mohonk. 

RHINEBECK— With Ferry for Rondont, and Ulster & Delaware 
R.R., for Catskiil Mountain Resorts, and Wallkill Valley R.R. for 
Lake Mohonk. 

CAT SKILL— With Catskiil Mountain R.R. 

HUDSON— With Boston and Albany R.R., for Chatham, Pittsfield 
North Adams, Lebanon Springs, etc. 

ALBANY— With New York Central R.R., for Niagara Palls, 
Buffalo, Watertown, Thousand Islands, and Western Points. 
With Rensselaer & Saratoga R.R., for Saratoga, Montreal, and 

points north. W r ith Albany and Susquehanna R.R. for Elmira, 
Watkin's Glen, etc. 

DINING SALOON ON THE MAIN DECK. 
Meals served on the European plan. 
tSpTRIP TICKETS from New York to West Point or Newburgh, 
returning same day, $1.00. To Poughkeepsie and return, $1.50. 



100,000 PEOPLE 

READ THE DAILY, SEMI-WEEKLY AND WEEKLY EDITIONS OF TEE 

ALBANY EVENING JOURNAL. 

[Established in 1830.] 

Advertisers should remember that the "Journal's " daily circula- 
tion extends from Albany to Canada on the North, to L'tica on the 
West, to Poughkeepsie and Kingston on the South and to Springfield 
Mass., on the East. It is the most widely circulated paper published 
in the State outside of New York City. Special Kates to Hotels and 
Educational Institutions. Send for terms. 

INDUCEMENTS TO NEW SUBSCRIBERS. 

Semi-Weekly: For One Year, including the '' Journal Map " of 

the State of New York, and the "Journal Almanac " $2 OO 

For Six Months, including- a copy of the ''Journal Almanac'' . . 1 00 
For Three Months, including- a copy of the " Journal HandBook 

of Useful Information " 50 

For One Month, (For trial) . 15 

Weekly: The *' Weekly Journal " will be sent, postage free, to 
NEW Subscribers witb a copy of the "Journal Map '' of the 

Stateof New York (worth $1.50), for one year 1 00 

The Weekly Journal, with the "Journal Hand Book of Useful 

Information," for six months, for 50 

The Weekly Journal for three months, 25 

The Weekly Journal, (for trial), for one month, for four two cent 

postage stamps 08 

HOW TO GET A PRIZE. 

Prize No. 1. To any person sending $10 and five new subscribers 
for the Semi-Weekly, or ten new weekly subscribers, we will send five 
copies of the Semi-Weekly or ten copies of the Weekly for one year 
and the "Journal Watch," an excellent imported time piece and a 
good time keeper, valued at $9. 

Prize No. 2. To any person sending $5, and five new subscribers 
to the " Weekly Journal," we will send five copies of the Weekly for 
one year, the " Journal Map," of the State of New York, the " Journal 
Almanac," and the " Journal Hand Book of Useful Information." 

Address, 

W. J. ARKELL, President, 

The Journal Company, 

ALBANY, N. Y. 



PEOPLES EVENING LINE 

BETWEEN 

NEW YORK AND ALBANY. 




During the Season of Navigation, the Steamers 

DEEW, or ST. JOHN, 

Capt S. J. ROE, Capt THOS. POST, 

WILL LEAVE NEW YORK! FOR, ALBANY 

Daily, Sundays excepted, at 6 P.M., from Pier 41, North River, 
Foot of Canal Street. 

Connecting with trains for SARATOGA, LAKE GEORGE, LAKE CHAMPLAIN, 

the ADIRONDACKS and Summer Resorts of the NORTH, 

EAST, and WEST. 



LEAVE ALBANY 



Every week-day at 8.00 P. M., or on arrival of trains from NORTH, EAST and WEST, 
connecting at New York with ALL EARLY TRAINS for the SOOTH. Meals on the 
European Plan. 

A special train LEAVING on LANDING in Albany at 7:30 a.m., for Howe's Cave 
Sharon Springs and Cherry Valley, stepping from Steamer to Cars. 



FOR TICKETS IN NEW YORK. 

Apply at Company's Office (Pier 41 North River); and at all principal Hotels and 

Ticket Offices in New York, and on board the Steamers. R. R. Office throughout the 

country. 

Tickets sold and baggage checked to all points WEST via N. Y. C. & H. R. R., & N. Y. 

W. S. & B. R. R; also tickets of above roads good for passage and state-room berth. 

W. W. EVERETT, J. H. ALLAIRE, M. B. WATERS. 

President. Gen. T. Agent. Gun. Pass. Agent. 



THE 



DAILY SABATOGIAN. 

The Leading Watering Place Journal of the Country, 

a AS BEEN PUBLISHED AT SARATOGA SPRINGS FOR NEARLY 

A QUARTER OF A CENTURY, AND IS WELL KNOWN 

£0 THE THOUSANDS OF FREQUENTERS OF 

THIS GREAT SUMMER RESORT. 



It is served every morning to guests at all the Hotels 
and Boarding Houses in the place. It contains each day 
a full report of all the Hotel Arrivals, together with the 
current Social News, Personal Gossip, Reports of Balls. 
Hops, Dinners, Excursions to the Lake, <fec. 

The Saratogian is on file during the Summer season 
at most of the principal watering places throughout the 
country, and is also sent regularly during the season to 
large numbers of distinguished people in all parts oi 
the country, making it the choicest advertising medium 
in the country. 

SPECIMEN COPIES SENT ON APPLICATION. 



S. V. R. FORD, 

MANAGER. 




DRS. STRONG'S REMEDIAL INSTITUTE, 

Saratoga Springs^N. Y. 

Popular Summer Resort, also open all the Year, for 

Patients or Boarders, permanent or transient. 

Location very pleasant, quiet, and within five minutes walk of the great 
hotels, Hathorn and principal springs, Congress Spring Park, and other sources 
of attraction. „ 

Bath department complete and elegant, and affords the only Turkish, Ktis- 
Bian, Roman, and Electro-thermal baths in Saratoga. 

It is the resort of many eminent persons, for rest and recreation as well as 
for treatment. Among its patrons are Rev. Theo. L. Cutler, D.D. (Brooklyn), 
Rev. Chas. P. Deems, D.D. (N. Y.), Rev. C, C. (" Chaplain") McCabe, D.D., 
Rev. Jos. R. Kerr, D.D. (N. Y.), Rev. D. K. Pierce, D.D. ( Zions Herald), 
Pres. Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D. (Union Theological Seminary), T. Sterrt 
Hunt, L L.D. (Montreal), Medical Professors, Armor, Ross, Knapp, and many 
others well known. . 

The proprietors, are graduates of the Medical Department of the University 
of the City of New York. The institution is endorsed and largely patronized 
by the medical profession. There is no appearance of invalidism. It is lur 
nished with every appliance requisite for the treatment of Nervous, Lung, fe- 
male and other chronic Diseases. In addition to remedial agents used in general 
practice are employed such special appliances as Turkish. Russian, ^ om * n ' 
Electro-thermal, and a great variety of Hydropathic baths. Galvanic and Faraaic 
Electricity, Vacuum treatment. Inhalations, medicated, oxygen and compressed 
air, Movement cure, Health Lift. Cnleethenics. the Mineral Waters, etc. 
SEND FOR A CIRCULAR. 



THE 



Saratoga Daily Journal 

DAVID F. RITCHIE, Editor and Proprietor, 

Contains, in each daily issue during the 
Summer, all the 

ARRIVALS AT THE HOTELS, 



WITH REPORTS OP THE 



Social Events of the Day, 
FULL TELEGRAPHIC NEWS 

Reports of the R.aces, 



And other matters of interest to Summer 
Tourists. 



Sent to any address during July and 
August for $1.25 in advance, or for 65c. 
per month. 

On File at most of the leading Water- 
ing Places. 




BROADWAY HALL, 



W. J. RIGGS. 



Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 



The undersigned having leased Broadway Hall, takes this oppor- 
tunity of informing his former patrons and friends of his p-.esent location. 
This old and well-established house is charmingly situated on North 
Broadway, in close proximity to the famous Empire, Red, Star, High 
Rock and Magnetic Springs, and the new and beautiful Woodlawn Park. 
Iti3 within a few minutes walk of Congress Park and the larger hotels, 
yet is sufficiently removed from the heat and bustle of the town to con- 
stitute it a quiet and delightful summer home for families and tourists. 
The broad piazza, ample lawn, croquet ground, and shade trees, render it 
especially attractive and home-like. The house has just been thoroughly 
reraired and refurnished. Special att ntion has been given to sewerage, 
and the house now contains the modern improvements. The table will be 
supplied with all the delicacies of the season, and all its appointments 
will be first-class. 

A stable is connected with the house for the convenience of gentle- 
men desiring to bring their own horses. Trusty Porters in attendance 
upon the arrival of all trains. Applications for board will receive prompt 
attention. W. J. RIGGS. 



STILL SCREAMS! Th l s A A G RA L T E ° GA 

A popular and Fearlessly Progressive Watering-Place "Weekly! Unique! 
Didactic ! Intensely Original ! Salient and Sparkling ! Brilliancy and 
Brevity Combined ! Worth Ten Times its Cost to Anybody Anywhere 
who Reads and Thinks, and has Brains to Profit by Information and 
Instruction. It is Enlivened with Splendid Stories, Edifying and En- 
joyable Contributions on the Issues and Problems of the Century, 
Earnest and Outspoken Editorials, Pungent Poetry, Sprightly and 
Brilliant Fashion Gossip, a Banquet of Fun, Mysterious Disclosures, 
Philosophical Comment and Local Laconics, and the Novel and Im- 
mensely Popular Feature known by the Taking Title of SCREAM- 
INGSU! Best Advertising Medium in Saratoga. Rates: One cent 
a word ; half price each subsequent insertion. Send one dollar and 
get the Eagle a year; 25 cents for three months, or 3 cents for specimen 
copy. Address JOHN JOHNSON & CO., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

The Saratoga Eagle has more life to the square inch than any other 
paper in the country. — Unionville New Century. Enclosed find a nest- 
egg for the Eagle— $1. Your support of free and general education is 
most praiseworthy. — Ned Buntline. The Eagle is a fearless bird, and a 
proud representative of American soil and principles. — Claysville Sen- 
tinel. John Johnson, formerly city editor of the Times, just lets the 
Eagle scream. He says the enterprise is a financial success, as every- 
body knows it is a complete triumph in other respects. Our quondam 
attache is a brilliant paragraphist. — Troy Times. 

TRIAL CHANCE !— A 10-line advertisement will be inserted one 
time on receipt of $1 ; 6 times for $3; 12 times for $5. Cash must ac. 
company order. Advertisers report large returns from light invest- 
ments. Trial advertisements ordinarily lead to permanent contracts. 

CHEAPEST JOB PRINTING HOUSE IN U. S. 

JOHN JOHNSON & CO., Low Priced Printers, 10 Lake Ave.^opp. 
Town Hall), Saratoga Springs, N. Y. Large local and mammoth 
mail and 'extensive express business. Call or W rite for estimates. 
Work sent prepaid all over U. S. and Canadas. Prices 15 to 50 per 
cent, below other offices. Every conceivable kind of Job Printing 
quickly and properly executed. Save money by intelligent and im- 
mediate action. 

BARGAINS IN STATIONERY.-5 cents will buy 2-ifuU 
sheets of fine Writing Paper; 5 cents will buy 25 good Envel- 
opes; lO cents will buy IS sheets fine Foolscap; lO cents will 
buy 3.3 sheets Legal Cap. These prices are 50 per cent, below those 
of stationers. Worth saving? We should say so ! Go to 

JOHN JOHNSON & CO.'S, 10 Lake Avenue, opp. Town Hall. 






HIGH ROCK SPRING, 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 



The oldest Spring in Saratoga. Visited by Sir William 
Johnson in 1767. The High Kock is the father of all the 
healing waters in Saratoga. The water is unsurpassed for 
the diseases of the Kidneys and Liver; also for Biliousness, 
Acidity of the Stomach, Dyspepsia, Constipation, Scrofula, 
and Headaches. 

High Rock Water is furnished in cases containing 4 dozen 
pints, or 2 dozen quarts, and in block tin lined barrels, con- 
taining 30 and 40 gallons, for use on draught by druggists. 

For sale by all druggists, hotels and grocers throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

We publish one of the thousand testimonials : 

Homek, N. Y., May 6, '84. 
HIGH ROCK SPRING CO. 

Gentlemen:— After suffering for years with headache and the com- 
plexity of disorders attending and occasioning it, and having received the 
best medical attention that could be procured, without any relief, I was 
advised to use Mineral Water. 

I tried Imported Waters; also the famous "Congress" and "Hathorn " 
waters of Saratoga, N. Y., but the pure, sparkling " High Rock " has been 
to me a fountain of life. With intense gratitude do I acknowledge its ben- 
efits to myself and family, with the wish that all sufferers might imbibe 
from your living fountain. Thanks to the perfection of your bottling sya- 
ten which gives it to the distant public without diminishing or destroying 
any of its medical properties. 

I beg to add that the High Rock Water surpasses all other remedies 
that have been applied. 

Gentlemen, I do so appreciate the superiority of your Spring, that I 
wish the Press (the power that moves the world) might herald its worth to 
all suffering humanity. Yours truly, 

J. L. GRAVES. 

Address all orders and communications to the 

HIGH ROCK SPRING CO., 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 



C'crq oo 




THE NEW BOOK OF WORSHIP. 



HONGS OF CHRISTIAN f RAISE, 

FOR CHOIR AND CONGREGATION. 
Published with or without Scripture Selections for Responsive Reading. 

EDITED BY REV. CHARLES H. RICHARDS, D.D 

SONGS OF CHRISTIAN PRAISE has already been adopted by many 
churches throughout the country, and has bt. en received with unqualified satisfaction. 

Testimonials from the Press. 
The New York Observer says: "It contains everything essential to a 
handbook for general worship and special services. While it is attractively published, 
it is furnished at a price which is intended to make it popular." 

The Interior, Chicago, 111 : "Not burdened with lumber, it is yet large enough 
for all uses; choice enough to satisfy ihe most cultivated taste, and popular enough 
to lead the congregation." 

The Congregationaliet, Boston, Mass.: "It has been compiled with a dis- 
criminating wisdom and taste, and edited with a thoroughness which are uncommon." 
The Advance say6: "One of the choicest, richest, and most usable hymn- 
books published." 

The Golden Rule, Boston, Mass.: "In its musical part this service-book is 
probably not surpassed by any other in the language." 
Tha New York Tinies: ">n its mechanical arrangement the book leaves 

scarcely anything to be desired." 

Testimonials fr'om tlie I*vilx>it, 
Rev. G. L.Spining, D.D., Cleveland, Ohio: " It is the best I have ever seen." 
Rev. C L. Thompson, D.D., Taster of Presbyterian Church, Kansas 
City, Mo.: "It is every way an admirable bcok, convenient in size and shape, rich in 
hymns and tunes, and fully adapted to all the demands of social and public worship." 

'Rev. W. E. Knox, D.D., Pastor First Presbyterian Church, Elmira, N. Y.: 
" Your volume of Christian Praise is very attractive. M> chanically and typographically 
it is the highest style of art. The hymns I like for their devotional character.'' 

Rev. J. E. Rankin, !>.!>., Washington, D.C.: "The book isagrand one. 
Certainly the best of its kind I have ever examined." 

Rev. J". Hall Itlcl lvalue, Providence, R.T.: "After two years u^e, I regard 
' Songs of Christian Praise ' as be} ond comparison with any book that I have ever seen." 
Rev. J". G. Vose, D.D., Providence, R.I., says: " Our people are unanimous 
in its favor, and enjoy it more and more." 

Rev. T. ML. T»«n>roe, of Akron, Ohio, says: "The book grows upon us, and 
we heartily commend it." 

Rev. W. H. Thomas, sys : "Your hymn-book has more than met our ex- 
pectations. It is a work of merit, and improves w ith use. It gives perfect satisfaction." 
Rev. Frank P. Woodbury, D.D., Rockfbrd. 111., says: "Our high 
expectations of the popular acceptance of the bjoV, when, after thorough examination 
an 1 extensive comparison, we ordered 450 copies, have been more than fulfilled. ' 

Rev. Samuel Conn, D.D., St. Paul, Minn., says: "We decided upon 
1 Songs oC Christian Fraise, 1 after a thorough comparison with several other books. A 
short trial in actual worship has confirmed our favorable opinion of it." 

Rev. L. O. Brastow, I>.D., Burlington, Vt., says: " To me personally it is 
exceedingly satisfactory. It give* satisfaction to the church and congregation." 

Rev. Eli Corwin D.D., Racine, Wis., says: " The book is admirable for 
church service, and is the beRt for that purpose with which I am acquainted." 

Returnable Copies sent free to Pastors or Church Committees desiring 
books for examination. 

A twenty-four page pamphlet, containing specimen pages. teslimo7iials, price lists, 
etc., mailed free to any address on a/ p'.ic tl<m to 

TAINTOR BROTHERS, MERRILL & CO., Publishers, 

18 aud 20 Astor Place, New York City. 



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DRINK THE GENUINE 



EXCELSIOR WATER 

OF SARATOGA. , 

CURES DYSPEPSIA. HEADACHES, CONSTIPATION, ETC. 

Sold on Draught and in Bottles by First-class Druggists and Hotels. 




TRADE MARK 



The Genuine EXCELSIOR 'WATER 
is sold on Draught only through the 
Trade Mark. Ask your druggist for it, 
and he sure you get the "EXCELSIOR" 
drawn through the Trade Mark as shown 
in the annexed sketch. Avoid Artificial 
and Recharged Waters. 



The "Excelsior" Water is unequalled as a cathartic and diuretic, 
and is used with great success in treating diseases of the Liver and 
Kidneys. See below letters from two of our best known medical men. 



From Fonlyce Barker, M. D., of New York. 

I make great use of the various mineral waters in my practice, and I regard the 
" Excelsior " Spring Water of Saratoga as the best saline and alkaline laxative of 
this class. Sparkling with Carbonic Acid Gas, it is to most persons very agreeable 
to the taste, and prompt in action as a gentle Diuretic and Cathartic. 

FORDYCE BARKER, M. D. 

From Alfred L. Loomis, M. D. , of IVew York. 

During my whole professional life I have been accustomed to use freely the 
Water of Congress and Empire Springs. About six months since, accidentally, I 
was furnished with a few bottles of the "Excelsior" -pring Water, and found it bo 
much more agreeable to the taste and pleasant in its effects than either Congress or 
Empire Water, that I have since used it myself, and recommend it to patients 
requiring a gentle Cathartic and Diuretic. A. L. LOOMIS, M. D. 



THE BOTTLED "EXCELSIOR" WATER 
is unexcelled, and retains all its properties "unim- 
paired for years. 



Address FRANK W LAWRENCE, 
Proprietor Excelsior and Union Springs, 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y. 




THOUSAND ISLAND HOUSE, 

ALEXANDRIA BAY, N. Y. 

On the banks of the St. Lawrence River. First-class in every re- 
spect, magnificent situation, no malaria, no hay fever. Perfect drain- 
age, pure water, finest fishing in America. House refitted during the 
past winter at great expense. Prices to suit the times. A new route 
through the Adirondacks to Blue Mountain Lake. Special rates to 
families. 

It. H. SOUTHGATE, Proprietor. 

J AS. C. MATTHEWS, Manager. 



WINDSOR HOTEL, 
Winter Resort, 

JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 




PUTNAM HOUSE, 
Winter Resort, 

PALATKA, FLORIDA. 



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COLLEGE^ SOITG-S. 

CARJIIVl YAL,Ei\SIA.-A New Collection of Yale and 
other College Songs, with Music and Piano- Forte Accompaniments, 
and Engraving of Yale College Buildings. Extra cloth, $1.50. Extra 
cloth, full gilt, $1.75. 

SOIVOS OF COLUMBIA.— A New Collection of Columbia 
College Songs, with Music and Piano - Forte Accompanimen ts. Bound in 
extra cloth, showing the College Colors, blue and white. Price, $1.50. 

SOBTG SHEAF.— A Collection of Vocal Music, arranged in 
one, two, three and four parts, with complete elementary course for 
schools, academies and social circle. Price, boards, by mail, 75 cents. 

HAPPY HOURS.— A New Song Book for Schools, Acad- 
emiesand the Home Circle. 188 pp. 12mo. Price, boards, CO cents. 

INTRODUCTION TO ELOCUTION.— By Prof Mark 
Bailey. 60 pp. 12mo. Price, cloth, 50 cents. 

HISTORICAL, EPOCH*.- The Great Events of History 
Id Condensed Form, with System of Mnemonics. Price, cloth, 50 cents. 

Any of above books sent by mail, post-paid, on receipt of price. 
TAINTOR BROTHERS, MERRILL & €0., Poblishers, 

18 «fc SO .Astor IPlace, N«w York. 

The Critic and Good Literature, 

A Literary Weekly, Critical and Eclectic. 

J. L. & J. B. GILDER, - - Editors. 

Ten Cents Per Copy. $3 a Year. 



CONTRIBUTORS: 



H. H. BoyeseH, Rev. Francife Brown, John Burroughs, F. Marion Crawford, George 
Wm. Curtis, Charles DeKay, Edward Eggle ton. Prof. George P. Fisher, O. B. Froth- 
ingham. H. H Furness, Sidney How rd Gay, Richard Watson Gilder, Edmund Gosse, 
W. E. Griffis, E. E. Hale, Joel 0. Harris, H. H." Dr. O. W. Holmes, Julia Ward Howe. 
Brander Matthews, D G.Mi chell, E. 8. Nadal, Rev. Dr. R. H. Newton, W. J. Rolfe, Dr, 
Philip Schaff, E. C Stedman, R. H. Stoddard. Prof. W. G. Sumner, Edith M. Thomas. 
Charles Dudley Warner, Walt Whitman, Prof. W. D. Whitney, Prof. C. A. Young. 



PRESS OPINIONS. 
"If in union is strength, much is to be expected from the union of two such 
strong periodicals as Good Literature and The Critic," — Toronto Week. 

"The Critic and Good Literature, since the consolidation, has steadily im- 
proved in every way." — Baltimore American. 

"Maintains its place at the head of literary criticism in America." — London 
Academy. 

THE GOOD LITERATURE PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

18 and 20 Astor Place, New York. 



TT 



LEAVE THE BEATEN TRACK FOR ONE SEASON. 



During the warm season north of the Equator is the pleasantest time to visit Brazil, and 
now is the time for Tourists to enjoy a tropical climate in its coolest season. 



The United States and Brazil Mail Steamship Co, 



JOHN ROACH, President. 



C. P. HUNTINGTON, Vioe-President. 




FROM 

NEW YORK via NEWPORT NEWS, 

FOR 

St. Thomas, Para, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio do Janeiro, 

(Calling at MARANHA3I to land and receive Passengers and Mails only ) 

To parties desiring an ocean voyage, this route offers unusual attractions. After 
crossing the Gulf Stream, which takes but a few hours there are no such rough passages 
as are experienced on the North Atlantic. A fine sail all the way is the rule. 
Outward passages, via ports of call— about 5,500 miles— will be made in about 26 days 
Homeward " T ' " " " , . . " . • 25 days 

Outward passages, direct from New Yor'c to Rio de Janeiro, in about 20 days 

Homeward " " Rio de Janeiro to New York, " - - - 18 days 

THE ZP^SS-A-G-IE BATES 
Are so low that it costs but little more for a passage to Rio than it does to spend the same 
number of days at a good Hotel, . 

Passengers for Cuba can go or return on this Line via St . 1 homas. 

Passengers for Montevideo or Buenos Ayres are advised to take tickets to Rio de 
Janeiro, and there select the day and steamer they wish to sail on. 

The new and elegant steamers of this line are 317 feet long, 38 1-3 feet beam, 31 1-2 feet 
depth from ripper deck, have been built in the most careful manner, are unusually staunch, 
have water-tight compartments, powerful engines, fine model, experienced surgeons and 
superior passenger accommodations. 

SIDNEY W. ROWELL, Sec. andTreas., Mills Building, Broad St., New York. 
Freight and Passenger Agents to whom application should be made . 

PAUL F. GERHARD & CO., 

19 South William St.. New York. 



ELY'S 

CREAM BALM 

Causes no Pain. 
Gives Relief at 
once. Thorough 
Treatment will 
Cure. Not a Liq- 
uid or Snuff. Ap- 
ply with Finger. 
Give it a Trial. 



C atarrH 




HAY-FEVER 



THIS REMEDY 

was discovered by its 
present proprietors, and 
is the result of experi- 
ments, based upon 
many years experience 
as Pharmacists. It is 
wholly different from 
all other preparations 
ever used for these 
troubles; being perfect- 
ly harmless and agreea- 
ble; offering in those 
respects a marked con- 
trast to the DANGEROUS 
AND HARMFUL LIQUIDS, 
SNUFFS AND CAUTERIZ- 
ING POWDERS. 

UNEQUALED FOR COLDS IN THE HEAD. 

Sold by druggists at 50 cejits. 60 cents per package by mail registered. Send 
for circular containing full information and reliable testimonials. 

ELY BEOTHEKS, Druggists, Owego, N. Y. 

CATABBH. 

For fifteen years I have been greatly annoyed with Catarrh, which caused severe 
pain in my head, continual discharges into my throat and unpleasant breath. My 
sense of smell was much impaired. By a thorough use for six months of Ely's 
Cream Baku I have entirely overcome these troubles. 

J. B. CASE, St. Denis Hotel, Broadway and 11th St.,N. Y. 

I have suffered from acute inflammation in my nose and head. My eye has 
been for a week at a time, so I could not see. I have used no end of remedies, also 
employed a doctor, who said it was impure blood-but I got no help. I used Ely's 
Cream Balm on the recommendation of a friend. I was faithless, tut in a few days 
was cured. My nose, now, and also my eye, is well. It is wonderful how quick it 
helped me. MRS. GEORGIE S. JUDSON, Hartford, Conn. 

" Messes. Ely Bros., Druggists, Owego, N. Y.: I have been afflicted for twenty 
years, during the months of August and September, with Hay Fever, and have tried 
various remedies for its relief without success. I was induced to try your Cream 
Balm- have used it with favorable results, and can confidently recommend it to all 
similarly afflicted." ROBERT W. TOWNLEY. 

(Ex-Mayor) Elizabeth, N. J , Sept. 27, 1879. 

Catarrh and Hat Fever.— For twenty years I was a sufferer from Catarrh of 
the head and throat, in a very aggravated form, and during the summer with Hay 
Fever. I procured a bottle of Ely's Cream Balm, and alter a few applications re- 
ceived decided benefit — was cured by one bottle. Have had no return ot the com- 
plaint. CHARLOTTE PARKER, Waverly, N. Y. 

"Of the many Catarrh and Hay Fever remedies we keep in stock, there is none 
that has increased so rapidly in sales or given such universal satisfaction as Ely's 
Cream Balm." 0. N. CRITTENTON, 115 Fulton St., New York. 

"Messrs. White & Burdick, Druggists, Ithaca, N. Y.: I recommend to those 
t uffering (as I have been) with Hay Fever, Ely's Cream Balm. Have tried nearly all 
the remedies I could find, and give this a decided preference over them all. It has 
given me immediate relief." C. T. STEPHENS, 

Hardware Merchant, Ithaca, N. Y., Sept. 6, 1880. 



25 OKNTS. 




CONGRESS SPRING. 

THE STANDARD MINERAL WATER. 

CATHARTIC, ALTERAT1 VE. A Specific for disorder* 
of the STOMACH, LIVER, and KIDNEYS, 
ECZEMA, MALARIA and all impur- 
ities of the BLOOD. 

SO enviable a name has this famous Mineral Water, that the mana- 
gers of inferior mineral springs, desirous of imitating the natural 
purity of the bottled water of Congress Spring, inject a powerful acid 
in their bottled water to preserve the crude ingredients in solution, — 
being so heavily laden with 

LIME AND IRON DEPOSIT. 

With such contrivances, bogus testimonial and doctored analysis 
Is they seek to rival the pure medicinal waters of Congress Spring. 

I HE regular season visitors to Saratoga fully understand these 
^ crude harsh waters, many of them after painful experiences. 
In proof of this fact we can produce a great many responsible names. But 
the Saratoga visitors without experience, and many who use the bot- 
tled waters (often labeled as curatives for disorders which they posi- 
tively aggravate), should remember, that crude mineral waters pro- 
duce headache, a sense of burning and internal irritation, and do irre- 
parable injury to the digestive organs and kidneys. 

CONGRESS WATER, PURE, NATURAL and RELIABLE. 

NONE GENUINE SOLD ON DRAFT. 
For Sale by Druggists, Grocers, Wine Merchants, and Hotels. 

BOTTLE (O) MARK. 






THE SARATOGA GEYSER 

NATURAL MINERAL WATER. 

CATHARTIC, ALTERATIVE and DIURETIC. 

A. high authority says: "The Geyser Spring Water is the 
K«eT: l n f0r Wvr and KLidn.y O^seaseF, anfl lYlpplUaSii 
to a greater number of persons than any Spring at Saratoga." 

Soda°a„rf IJKtSf la , th " E ate .f *• "^rivaled. It contains more 
larStSga ¥ P V?Z*™te™ <** * 75 * rai ™> **« ™7 other 

Natural r»th^»J? * Sa ^°* a Wat< T bottled without loss of its 
fresh™* a a Ine Spring. ***' ^ <hat drlnta from tn « toottle « 

*r™ r ™ o TESTIMONIALS. 

Hon. John M. Shibley, Andover N H 

-nV*i h « a r^ U86d wf Geyser f ? r years - Ifc ie ^valuable for those of sedentar'y purl 

auL^Z P r^L OVerWOrked rf eS8ional men - lt relieve8 trom indigestion, 
quiets the nerves and gives sweet sleep as nothing else can." 

Rev. Theo. L. CtTTLEK, D.D., Brooklvn N Y 

"No water keeps its virtue in a bottle better than Geyser." ' ' ' 

K. Hats, Esq., Cleveland 

ve^KSS? 6 ft?*^ 5* lebrated Ge 5-« er Spring water for the last twelve 
fhTw iZJLJlS 1 be W1 1 th0 » t x * at aQ y P rice - After having tried all, I consider it 
tne best universal mineral water in this country or Europe." 

By the late Dr. W. H. Van Buben, ~~ New Y ork City 

usinff a rnnt 6 £ e f yser ™ ter to be the best water in the United States for people 
waters T^n^t'-^ *£ e ?H 7 water that wil1 mix with milk like the German 
waters. I consider it the best of the Saratoga waters as a remedy for indigestion." 

Rev. Howard B. Gbose x> >,, 

test itself I am convinced wherever it is fairly tried." 1U ai 

A. D. Nickerson, Esq., p . , _ 

w.t«?n Ene b cen g ar in tS? 8 ' * ^ 1U ^ Ut7 °? having at ^ times a ^ oT^ser 
can6^fte^ r m y be other mineral waters as good, but I think none 

Ve 'T?e e Ge^e A rsSn^w a t F ;r h* f /ranciscan Monastery, Winsted, Conn, 
xne Peyser Spnng water, hasfor several years, proved of great benefit to me *' 
<Vm. Wippert, Esq., 

ver; H bS£fto a mTand J^dxSL^S?^ ^ ^ W ~ h " ^ 

Prescribed in the Philadelphia HospT^aTfoTskin Diteaaes, Philadelphia Pa 
Address, 

getseb s^^nsro- CO. 

Sarataga Springs, N. Y. 

Aelen w. Evabts, Pres. Geo. E. Seitlb, Treas. Frank Jones, Secv. 






TAINTOR'S GUIDE-BOOKS 

TAINTOR BROTHERS, MERRILL & CO., Publishers, 
18 & 20 Astor Place, New York. 



These Guides describe all Cities, Towns and Stations on the routes, giving 
items of interest to the traveler for business and pleasure, and are 

ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS AND WOODCUTS. 



PRICE, 25 CENTS EACH, BY MAIL. 

"City Of New York."— Containing descriptions of and direc- 
tions for visiting the Public Buildings, Places of Amusement, Library, etc. 
A new Street Directory, Travelers' Directory, and a Map of New York, 
Brooklyn, Jersey City, Hoboken, etc. 

1,4 Hudson River Route."— New York to West Point, Cats- 
kill Mouu tains, Albany, Troy, Saratoga Springs, Lake George, Lake Cham- 
plain, Adirondacks, Montreal and Quebec, via Hudson River Steamers. 

"Saratoga IllUStralecl." — The Visitors' Guide to Saratoga 
Springs, with maps and wood cuts. ( 

"Saratoga Mineral Waters."— Directions for their use by 
Dr. W. O. Stillman, of Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Sea-Side Resorts. — A Hand-book for Health and Pleasure 
Seekers, for the Atlantic Coast from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. 

"The Northern Resorts." — Boston to the White Moutains, 
Lake Memphremagog, Green Mountains, Lake Champlain, Sheldon, Massena, 
Ogdensburgh, Montreal and Quebec. 
"The Pennsylvania Coal Regions."— New York and 

Philadelphia to Easton, Bethlehem, Delaware Water Gap, Mauch Chunk, 
Scrantou, Harrisburg, Williamsport and Elmira. 

"The Erie Route."— New York to Ithaca, Watkins' Glen, 
Rochester, Dunkirk, Buffalo and Niagara Falls, via Erie Railway and 
branches. 

"New York to Saratoga, Buffalo and Niagara 

Falls."— Via Hudson River and New York Central R.R. 

"The Newport and Fall River Rout e."-New York 
to Boston, via Newport and Fall Ri*er. With descriptions of Newport and 
Narragansett Bay. 

"Conneetieut River Route."— New York to the Whit© 
Mountains, via N. Y. & N. H. and Connecticut River R.R. 

"New York to Philadelphia, Baltimore and 
Washington." __ 

Published by TAINTOR BROTHERS, MERRILL & CO., 
18 & 20 Astor Place, New York, 

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